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Growing apple trees in the country is a worthy work, which handsomely pays off with an abundant harvest of bulk fruits. But this is only possible if your garden has not been affected by diseases and pests that can not only reduce the yield, but also seriously damage the health of the trees.
First of all, we would like to consider the diseases of apple trees, which are often attacked not only by adult trees, but also by young seedlings. We will also try to provide the most detailed presentation of the signs of diseases and methods of dealing with them.
Powdery mildew is known to every owner of a personal plot, because this disease is very fond of pobyuyut in the garden, and in the garden. Powdery mildew affects vital parts of the tree - shoots and buds, leaves and bark. Initially, an off-white coating appears on their surface, which eventually transforms into brown, dark dots may occur. The foliage turns yellow and dries quickly, the shoots stop growing, the vitality of the tree fades, and it cannot bear fruit. If the disease goes unnoticed, the mycelium can overwinter in the affected part of the plant and begin its activity again next spring.
Preventive and therapeutic measures for apple trees begin to be carried out in the spring, when young leaves only bloom. The tree is treated with special preparations by spraying. You can use "Topaz" or "Speed"by kneading 2 ml of the product in a bucket of water.
After the apple trees have bloomed, they must be treated with copper chloride, for example, using the drug Hom. The preparation is simple, at the rate of 40 g per bucket of water, spraying is performed with its use.
The fight against powdery mildew continues even after harvesting - using Bordeaux liquid (1%) or a solution of copper sulfate (spraying with a solution of 20 g of liquid soap and 50 g of copper sulfate in a bucket of water).
Scab is a fungal disease that affects the leaves, and also passes on to flowers and stalks. The disease manifests itself in brown plaque on leaves that dry and fall off. In addition, the pouring of fruits may stop, because spots and cracks in their skin significantly slow down growth and impair the quality of apples.
The fight against the disease begins in the spring. Trees and young seedlings must be cultivated "Topaz" (spraying with a solution of the drug at the rate of 2 ml per bucket of water).
The following treatment is carried out after flowering with the use of the drug. Home (spraying with a solution of the drug at the rate of 40 g per bucket of water) or colloidal sulfur (80 g per bucket of water).
Bark Disease Cytosporosis
Apple tree cytosporosis is a fungal disease that affects parts of the bark of a plant. Initially, dark ulcers appear on the cortex, which deepen over time and occupy an increasingly large area. They quickly develop and change color, and at a later stage cytosporosis can be determined by large brown-red ulcers. The result of the disease is the death of large sections of the cortex, which fall together with the branches. Due to some unfavorable factors and external influences (poor or heavy soils, improper watering and care), the disease develops faster and can soon destroy the tree.
In the spring, in the phase of kidney swelling, the first spraying of the drug is performed Home (40 g per bucket of water).
It is important to carry out the procedure only on a nice and warm day.
The following spraying is carried out just before flowering. To do this, use a solution of copper sulfate (50 g per bucket of water).
The third spraying is carried out after flowering, using the same "Homa" and in the same concentration. In this case, spraying should be normalized: on a young tree - 2 l of solution, on an adult - 5 l.
Before the winter cold, fertilizing the apple trees with potassium and phosphorus is mandatory, as well as whitewashing the boles of large trees.
Why do apple trees dry
The disease manifests itself by the formation of brown rot spots on ripening apples. They quickly increase in size and soon cover the maximum part of the fetus, greatly affecting its quality. The number of rotten apples on the tree is rapidly growing, which simply crumble to the ground. The pulp is usually completely inedible.
Today, gardening experts offer many ways and means to combat various diseases.
For fruit rot, they most often recommend a drug that we have already mentioned many times in the current material - this is Home which must be diluted in a proportion of 40 g per bucket of clean water. The resulting solution is sprayed. There should be two - during the formation of young leaves and after flowering. The consumption of the finished solution for each adult and fruit tree is about 5-6 liters.
A bacterial burn is considered a disease of young apple trees, since it is most often brought into the garden with cuttings and seedlings that were bought in unverified places or received as a gift from neighbors. A bacterial burn is considered a quarantine disease and appears as a change in the shape of the leaves, blackening and drying of foliage and annual young shoots, as well as spoilage and decay of young fruits that remain in a stricken form on a tree. The disease manifests itself in the middle of summer.
The most effective way to combat the disease is to prevent a bacterial burn. In order not to bring a bacterial burn into the garden, several important recommendations should be observed.
- First of all, it is necessary to purchase healthy planting material.
- It is important to destroy in time small garden pests that are carriers of the disease.
- Rinse the tool after processing suspicious trees and seedlings.
- It is important to carry out disinfection of the soil in the garden with a solution of copper sulfate (60 g per bucket of water), as well as treatment with Hom (dilute up to 80 g of the drug in a bucket of water and spray the soil in the garden at the rate of 2 liters of liquid per square meter).
The only correct treatment for a bacterial burn is the complete destruction of the foci of the disease, after which it is necessary to repair the cuts on the tree with garden varieties or disinfect with copper sulfate solution (1%).
Often you can hear the opinion that milky gloss is a disease of the trunk of an apple tree. However, this is not entirely true, because for the most part the leafy part of the plant is affected, and only then, when the newly grown leaves deteriorate and bubble, does the disease penetrate deeper into the wood. Milky shine gradually spoils and kills the whole tree: foliage and branches crumble, and the plant itself becomes very weak in a short time. The disease can be seen not only in the air cavities of the leaves, which acquire a white-silver color, but also in the dark spots on the bark and trunk.
First of all, in order to properly deal with milky shine, it is necessary to properly prepare the trees for winter cold. Preventive treatment of trunks and leafy parts, as well as whitewashing of the bark in the autumn period will not be superfluous. Try to also ensure the correct watering of the apple tree and timely feed.
If the tree bark begins to become damaged, it is necessary to remove it, and treat the trunk with appropriate preparations and restorative agents, glossing over the wounds with special glue.
Black cancer is a serious enough disease that affects the bark of the stem, leaves and fruits. If you do not pay attention to the diseased tree in time or treat it incorrectly, you can lose not only the crop, but also the plant itself.
You can identify black apple cancer by the spots on the leaves.which increase not only in size, but also quantitatively. At the same time, black rot appears on the fruits, and the bark begins to become covered with cracks and twist, the tissues rise and break, the disease progresses.
The main measure can be considered the fight against small pests and some diseases that weaken the plant's resistance to disease, thereby increasing the risk of damage.
Parts of the tree on which the symptoms of the disease appear should be pruned.
The trunk and leaf part must be treated with a solution of Bordeaux fluid, but only after the flowering of the apple tree.
In the fight against diseases of apple trees, it should be remembered that the soil, which must be decontaminated in a timely manner, has a huge impact on the state of tree health. It is also required to remove to the maximum the dead parts of plants, infected and diseased fruits and leaves, broken and fallen branches and stems from the site. All this should be burned off site.
Pests and control of apple trees
If you correctly identify the pests that have settled in your garden, and also act on them with correct and effective methods, protecting the trees from damage will be much easier.
So, in the garden you can find many pests that do not mind eating the bark of apple trees, leaves, flowers and fruits, for example: fruit moth, hawthorn, codling moth, sawfly, pipelid, sapwood and others. Some of them are especially common and do quite a lot of harm.
Apple aphid green
These are the most common pests in gardens that can attack plants in any region. Green apple aphid forms entire colonies on the shoots and deciduous part of apple trees, eats leaves and spoils the green part of the tree, covers damaged areas with a specific coating.
The best way to kill a pest is to attack the ladybugs. However, not all gardeners manage to get enough of these insects. If this is not possible, treat the apple trees from pests with a decoction of tobacco and soap or a solution of malathion (0.3%).
Red apple tick
This pest can attack the greens for several years in a row, sucking the juice from it. The tick quietly hibernates in the folds of the bark, is reborn in the spring and grows up to 5-6 new generations of insects per season. Red ticks focus on the tips of stems and leaves.
For prevention, trees should be cleaned of old bark, taken out of the site and burned. It is also necessary to practice spraying apple trees in the spring from pests using solutions of dicofol or karbofos.
Listobloshka, or apple thistle
Small yellowish-green insects that infect the buds and leaves live deep in the folds of young buds. Leaf flocks develop rapidly and have the ability to winter without loss.
The control of apple pests in the spring may begin with the destruction of the leaf flare. The moment of swelling and blooming of the kidneys cannot be missed, otherwise it will be very difficult to find and destroy the apple thistle in the depths of the green mass. But still there are ways to deal with the pest, for example, fumigation with tobacco smoke or treatment of wood with a solution of malathion (0.3%).
The caterpillars of these pests calmly survive the winter period in the bark of the tree, creating a kind of housing from hardened mucus. In the spring, the caterpillar goes outside and settles on the leaves of the apple tree, which it actively feeds on. Here she gives birth to a new generation, which, coming out of the cobweb nests, with no less appetite destroys greenery.
Great options for pest control are the famous chlorophos solution (0.7%) or ash solution (0.2%).
Pests of apple trees: leafworms
You can meet leaflets in almost every garden. These pests infect the deciduous part of the trees. Leafworms begin their activity in the garden in the spring, when green caterpillars with small brown spots emerge from cocoons in the bark of an apple tree. They damage the buds and buds, pull the leaves with cobwebs, and by mid-summer pupate right in a pre-folded leaf of an apple tree.
It is better to start the fight against pests of apple trees early, in the spring, when the leaflet only moves to young leaves. In this case, the proposed methods will be quite effective. Against the pest, a nitrofen solution (3%) should be used strictly in early spring, and then, after budding, a solution of chlorophos (0.7%).
Flowering Pests of Apple Trees: Apple Blossom
This is a small gray-brown bug with light stripes and an arched proboscis. It hibernates in the folds of the bark or under fallen leaves on the soil, from where in early spring it moves to a tree and actively destroys the plant's buds, eating them. Females of the apple flower beetle lay their eggs in the buds, and the hatched larvae eat the bud from the inside. As a result, the future flower turns into a dark cap glued by the excrement of the beetle, which does not open and does not give color. Naturally, this negatively affects the crop.
Competent care for the apple tree will help in the fight against pests - cleaning the old bark and the use of hunting belts. In early spring, apple pests are shaken off on shields and destroyed, and the tree itself is treated with a solution of malathion or chlorophos (0.3%).
Codling moths winter in the bark of trees or in the soil. The pest survives the winter in a dense cocoon. During budding of the apple tree, the codling moss pupates, and at the end of flowering, its butterflies are ready for the first flight. A whole month after this, pests lay eggs on the fruits of the apple tree and the upper part of the leaves, and after 2-3 weeks the caterpillars begin to destroy the apples, eating the flesh and getting to the seeds.
It is important to remove damaged fruits from the territory of the summer cottage, in order to prevent the spread of insects, collect carrion and also take it out of the territory. It is required to use hunting belts, clean the old bark and disinfect the tree. To protect the apple tree from pests like the moth, treat the tree with a solution of malathion or chlorophos (0.3%).
Spoiled leaves, leaves on the web and twisted into tubules, eaten fruits, fallen branches, buds and fruits, old bark, dead parts of the trunk and stems - all this should be removed from the territory of the dacha in time and burned. Trees must be timely and thoroughly treated from pests.
If you still have questions, for example, which means of control are best used against a particular pest, you can return to the list of insects and find a number of methods to combat them. As for the timing of treating trees with various drugs in order to protect them from insects, such procedures are best carried out in early spring, when pests begin to wake up after winter and just try to settle on a tree.
Apple tree diseases and their treatment
Diseases and pests of apple trees are a real problem in an old or groomed garden. But if you grow a young apple orchard and carefully adhere to the rules of agricultural technology, do not allow pests and tree diseases to enter the territory, process plants and soil, then nothing threatens your crop. We recommend reading the article on bark beetle control.