Lupine (Lupinus) is a plant from the legume family (Fabaceae) and is represented by both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as shrubs and shrubs. At present, perennial varieties are grown most often in summer cottages and urban flower gardens in open ground. Garden lupins are unpretentious, and their cultivation is quite affordable for beginner gardeners.
Lupine has a rod root system, which is able to penetrate more than one and a half meters into the ground. A characteristic feature of the decorative culture is the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria on the roots of the nodules, which are able to absorb nitrogen from the air and translate its molecules into a bound state.
Depending on the variety, the stem part can be either grassy or woody, with varying degrees of leafiness. Leaves of a sequential type, palmate-complex. They are located on long petioles, which have an articulation with the stem. Inflorescences are represented by multi-flowered apical brushes. Flowers are zygomorphic. ABOUTdyeing of the corolla during the flowering period can be different, but a blue tint is most often found.
Of the perennial species in the culture, the most frequently grown are the lupine leafy or Lupínus polyphýllus, which in Eurasia is an invasive species. The homeland of the plant is the northwestern regions of North America. This species belongs to the category of the most winter-hardy and unpretentious lupins, therefore it is cultivated with great success by beginner amateur gardeners in almost all regions of our country.
Lupine: seed cultivation
The best and most popular varieties
If in the southern regions and abroad flower growers increasingly prefer lupine tree or Lupinus arboreus Sims, then in the soil and climatic conditions of most regions of our country this perennial species, unfortunately, is not able to overwinter and very often dies. Therefore, most often, domestic flower growers cultivate various varieties of perennial perennial lupine.
|Title||Plant characteristics||Flower Features||Flowering period|
|"My castle"||50 cm high, with palmate, on long petioles, leaflets pubescent from below||Carmine red flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences no more than 30-35 cm long||In June, for a month. When removing inflorescences, secondary blooming in August|
|"Minarette"||A plant 50 cm high, with palmate, on long petioles, leafy hairy leaves below||Characteristic is white, yellow, blue, violet, pink, cream, carmine, red, and purple hue of flowers collected in racemose inflorescences||In June, for a month|
|"The Governor"||Leaves are collected in basal rosettes. Dark green leaf blades, matte, pubescent on underside||Blue-white flowers are collected in racemes 30-35 cm long||Blooms in June for a month. When removing inflorescences, secondary blooming in August|
|"Abendglut"||The plant reaches a height of 1 m and is characterized by excellent winter hardiness.||Flowers of dark red color are collected in racemes up to 40 cm long||In June, for a month|
|Faust||The plant is about 80 cm high. The stems are straight and strong, with palmate leaves on long stalks||Varicoloured varietal population||Bloom in June for three to four weeks. When removing blooming inflorescences, secondary blooming in August|
|"Neue Spielarten"||A straight-growing plant with a powerful stem, a height of not more than 1.1 m||Pink-orange staining flowers in brushes no longer than 40 cm||From June, throughout the month|
|"Prinzess Juliana"||A straight-growing plant with a powerful stem, a height of not more than 1.1 m||Whitish pink flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences no more than 40 cm long||In June, for a month|
Among the ornamental plants from the group of the English breeder D. Russell, there are unusually beautiful, as from the picture, one-varietal and multi-varietal varietal populations. Varieties of this group have a wide range of shades and, in addition to the well-known landscape designers "My Castle" and "The Governor", represented by the following most interesting forms:
- "Chamdeliers" with delicate lemon yellow flowers;
- "Burg Freulen" with a pure white coloration of inflorescences;
- Schlossfrau with a pleasant pale pink shade of flowers;
- Edelknabe with pronounced carmine staining;
- low-growing variety under the unusual name "Lulu", which is the most precocious mixture of varieties among perennial lupins.
All of the listed Lupinus varieties are absolutely unpretentious and very hardy, therefore, they are excellent for growing in the soil and climatic conditions of our country.
Landing in spring and autumn
Lupine can be planted not only in spring, but also in autumn. However, experienced gardeners recommend planting this decorative culture in the early spring. Depending on weather conditions, landing can be carried out both in April and in the first ten days of May. The best precursors for lupine, regardless of species and varietal characteristics, are cereals.
It is advisable to plant lupins on an even and fairly sunny place, since in strong shading the plant is not likely to take root or die. The site for planting a decorative culture should be prepared in advance. The soil must be fresh, loose, and enriched with basic fertilizers and nutrients necessary for the harmonious development and abundant flowering of the crop.
Mildly acidic or slightly alkaline loamy or loamy soils are best suited for garden lupins. If there is a very acidic soil, its liming is carried out by adding dolomite or lime flour. The standard consumption of lime compositions is about 4-5 kg per square meter of landing area. Re-liming is required to be done no earlier than five years later. Alkaline soils must be dug with peat. The optimal distance between plants should be approximately 30-35 cm.
Lupine seeds can be different in size, shape and color, but always have a smooth or finely meshed surface. At the stage of germination, the cotyledons leave the soil and form cotyledonous leaves with stomata.
Planting seeds with lupins in order to obtain seedlings is not difficult:
- it is necessary to prepare in advance a loose nutritious soil mixture from part of peat, part of soddy soil and ½ part of sifted sand;
- seeds prepared for sowing need to be mixed with nodules crushed to a powder state from the roots of adult plants, which will significantly accelerate the growth of nitrogen-absorbing bacteria;
- seeds that are not too deep should be carefully watered and covered with a damp cloth or film to maintain optimal moisture levels;
- crops need to be placed in a warm room while observing the temperature regime at the level of 20-22 ° С.
Subject to the technology of planting and growing, seedlings appear after about a couple of weeks. Further care of seedlings is to comply with the temperature regime and humidity indicators. The signal for planting seedlings in a permanent place is the appearance of the third real leaf. Transplanting too late can cause damage to the young root system.
Propagation by cuttings
Quite often, the propagation of lupine is carried out by cuttings. The popularity of the method is due to the fact that seed propagation of Lupinus is not able to guarantee the inheritance by plants of the main characteristics of the parent plant. Most often, seed reproduction is used for breeding purposes. Usually, in subsequent generations, purple and pink colors are preserved and the white color is completely lost.
To preserve the parental characteristics, it is recommended to carry out vegetative propagation of the decorative culture. Renewal buds formed at the base of the stems are used. This part of the aerial part should be cut out with a small piece of the root and planted in a moistened ground on a fairly shaded area.
The event should be carried out immediately after the flowering of lupine. It takes about three to four weeks to fully root, after which young plants should be planted in a permanent place in the flower garden.
Growing lupine is not difficult, but requires compliance with the main recommendations for care:
- for perennial and annual lupins, periodic loosening of the soil on the site and regular removal of weed vegetation is necessary;
- when caring for adult plants, it is necessary to carry out a systematic podkuchivanie, which will protect against the negative effects of adverse external factors the gradually exposed root neck of the ornamental culture;
- old plants whose age exceeds five years, it is recommended to remove and replace with young specimens, due to the death of the central part and a noticeable deterioration in flowering;
- when growing tall varieties and hybrid forms, it is necessary to use supports, which is especially true in areas with strong and gusty winds;
- in order to extend the flowering period, experienced flower growers recommend timely pruning of faded and wilted inflorescences, since in the future all the plant's forces will go to seed formation;
- irrigation measures at all stages of the growth and development of lupine should be moderate but regular;
- if necessary, during the dry spring and autumn period, plants should be provided with abundant water-charging irrigation;
- starting from the second year of life, plants need to be fertilized with nitrogen, which are fed in early spring;
- about 15-20 g of superphosphate and 3-5 g of calcium chloride should be applied per meter of flower bed;
- for the winter period, it is desirable to warm the soil around the plant with sawdust, which is especially important when growing ornamental crops in the northern latitudes, as well as in areas with little snowy and too frosty winters.
Prevention of diseases and pests should not be neglected. At the stage of bud formation, lupins are often affected by aphids. In the phase of active flowering, the larvae of the growth fly and nodule weevils can cause maximum damage to the flowering culture, protection from which involves the use of the most effective and modern insecticides. Also, lupins need to be prevented from damage by gray or root rot, fusarium wilting, spotting, mosaic and rust.
Use in garden design
Lupins, like candles, are the original decoration of flower beds and flower beds. The popularity of a flower in landscape design is caused not only by its unpretentiousness, but also by the variety of coloring. Lupins have proven themselves not only in single, but also in group landings. Candle flowers look especially impressive against the background of other perennials when decorating mixborders and lawns.
Lupine: landing and care
Hosts, bearded irises and dolphiniums go well with lupins. Floral arrangements look very impressive, where lupine is adjacent to red tall poppies, tiger lilies and nivyaniks. In recent years, blooming lupins are often used by florists in bouquets and serve as original interiors.