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Barberry (Berberis) - a tree-like shrub with thorns from the Barberry family. It has impressive roots. The leaves are large, leathery, but more often - regular or simple. In many varieties of shrubs, foliage acquires a purple hue in the fall. The plant has fragrant flowers of small size and yellowish color, collected in inflorescences. The shape and color of the fruit may be different. Spikes of a plant are transformed leaves.
Basically barberry is used to equip hedges. When grown in the garden, the shrub can reach a height of 2.5 m. Flowering occurs in May.
The main varieties and types of barberry
In total, more than 500 species of this shrub are known in nature. The most popular of them are presented in the table.
|View name||general description||Features of fruits and leaves||Care requirements|
|Common (Berberis vulgaris)||Thorny 2.5-meter shrub with yellowish shoots||Leaves are green. Edible, sour fruits||Highly resistant to low temperatures, dust|
|Thunberg (Berberis thunbergii)||Low shrub with sprawling branches||Leaves are green. The fruits are bitter, inedible||Highly resistant to powdery mildew, rust and drought|
|Amur (Berberis amurensis)||Bushes are tall, spreading branches, yellow shoots||Shiny leaves with serrated edges. Edible, sour red fruits||Highly resistant to heat and cold.|
|Ottawa (Berberis x ottawiensis)||Reaches 2 m in height||The leaves are purple. Red fruits||Resistant to disease and drought, sun-loving|
|Korean (Berberis koreana)||Reaches 2 m in height||Leaves turn red in the fall. Spherical fruits||Tolerates high humidity, susceptible to rust|
|Whole (Berberis integerrima)||Up to 2.5 m in height. Red branches||Leaves are green. Elongated berries||Highly resistant to drought, undemanding to soil|
|Ball-shaped (Berberis sphaerocarpa)||Up to 2.5 m in height. Spreading branches||Leaves are green. Blue fruits||Prefers crushed stone soil|
|Grade name||general description||Features of fruits and leaves||Care requirements|
|Red Chief||Large bush, up to 2.5 m high. Reddish shoots||The leaves are purple. Pink fruits||Heat-loving|
|Atropurpurea||Up to 2 m in height||The leaves are purple. Red fruits||Does not make high demands on care|
|Atropurpurea Nana||Dutch variety. Bush width - 1 m||Leaves are red, shiny. The fruits are red. Yellow flowers||Unpretentious in leaving|
|Japan (Japonica)||In height reaches 1 m||The leaves are wide, green. Does not bloom||Does not make high demands on care|
|Dart's Red Lady||Bush with a spherical crown, about 0.8 m high||Leaves are red in summer, turn yellow in autumn||Requires top dressing|
|Aurea||Reaches a height of 0.8 m. The crown is spherical. Yellowish shoots||The flowers are reddish. Red fruits||It does not tolerate too low temperatures|
|Erecta (Erecta)||Reaches 1 m in height. Branches up||The leaves are purple, small. Red fruits||Does not make high demands on care|
Different ways of propagating barberry
Propagation of the plant is carried out by various methods.
Propagation by layering
This method requires compliance with a certain technology. In the spring, choose a healthy annual branch. It is tilted and fixed in a groove 15 cm deep, falling asleep with soil, so that only the upper part of the branch remains on the soil surface. In autumn, an already rooted shoot is planted.
This method is suitable for all varieties except seedless. For propagation, the seeds of the most juicy barberry fruits are used: they are extracted, cleaned of pulp, washed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried. In the spring, they carry out planting: the seeds are buried a couple of centimeters into the soil, previously flavored with sand. A 5-centimeter layer of sawdust is poured on top of the soil. To protect plantings from rodents, spruce branches are placed on top of sawdust for the winter. In the spring, sawdust and spruce branches are cleaned, and the bed is covered with a film.
Before planting, the seeds are stratified by placing in a container with sand and sending in the refrigerator for 4 months. Shoots appear in June. In the phase of two leaves, the bushes dive into separate containers, and after a year they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Propagation by cuttings
For propagation of barberry cuttings using 15-centimeter branches with four internodes on each. Before rooting, the lower leaves are removed from the cuttings. Prepared planting material is planted in a greenhouse.
Barberry can be planted anywhere, except for sites with close groundwater. Therefore, you should not have a bush in the lowlands. Shading should also be avoided: without adequate lighting, the leaves lose their decorative qualities, and the fruiting of the bush ceases.
Pits for planting 40x40x40 cm in size are prepared in advance. 100 g of potassium sulfate and 200 g of superphosphate are added to each. You can add humus. After a few days, the bushes are planted according to the 25x25 cm pattern. It is important at the same time not to deepen the root necks.
Landing can be carried out in the spring or in the fall, in September. Plants with an open root system are planted in the spring. If the purchased seedlings were in the container, the planting time does not matter.
Barberry: propagation by layering
Care after landing
Barberry bush, like all plants, requires care. Mandatory are watering, fertilizing and pruning.
Branch pruning: rules and nuances
Every spring, the bush is pruned. The procedure is needed so that the branches of the plant do not interfere with each other. Low bushes can not be cut.
If the goal is to create a hedge, then remove the extra branches you need according to the schedule. The first time the procedure is performed in the second year after planting. Then, twice a year, in the summer, forming pruning is carried out.
Barberry tolerates short drought well. In dry weather, it is enough to irrigate once a week, and in the presence of periodic rains, additional irrigation is not required.
If the barberry has enough moisture, it looks just great. With a lack of water, the leaves of the bush begin to grow smaller, and the plant loses its attractiveness.
It is better to feed the plant from the second year after planting. The first fertilizer is applied in the spring, and then the procedure is repeated every four years. As a top dressing, you can use a bucket of water with the addition of 25 g of urea or any complex fertilizer containing a large number of useful trace elements.
Pest and disease protection
- Mostly barberry suffers from invasion by aphids and flower moths (flos Moth). Aphids adversely affect leaves: they shrink and dry out. To prevent pest in the spring, spray the bushes with a soap solution (300 g of soap per 10 l of water) or a solution of tobacco (0.5 kg of shag per bucket of water).
- Moth causes the main harm to the berries of the plant. It is possible to prevent its occurrence if the bush is treated with Decis.
- Powdery Mildew (Pulveream rubigo) looks like a white bloom on the shoots of a shrub. The fungus spreads rapidly and affects all parts of the plant. The fight against it consists in processing a solution of colloidal sulfur. Heavily affected branches are recommended to be removed.
- Another disease that the plant suffers from is bacteriosis (Herpesvirus). It manifests itself in the form of watery dark spots and cracks in the shoots. To combat bacteriosis, barberry is sprayed with copper oxychloride.
- The plant may also be exposed to rust (Aerugo). A sign of it is orange spots on the inside of the leaves. Over time, the affected foliage dries and falls. To prevent rust, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux fluid. Thunberg's barberry is not affected by rust.
The use of barberry in the garden
Barberry is a highly decorative plant that is actively used in landscape design. In the fall, it pleases the eye with purple leaves, and in the spring - pale green. The shrub is easy to cut, and you can give it any shape.
Typically, plant bushes are used as follows:
- for the formation of hedges and borders;
- as single landings;
- to create group compositions - in the role of a tapeworm.
How to combine barberry
Barberry looks great next to peonies (Aglaophotis). Their decorative tandem looks amazing for two months, until the peonies bloom. But even after this, the composition remains attractive due to the decorative leaves of the flowers.
Great neighbors for the plant are perennials: lilies (Lilium), graceful astilbe (Artemisia) and golden hosts that contrast sharply with the shrub. Such compositions can please the eye for a very long time - about 79 days.
Barberry goes well with chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum), as well as conifers: juniper (Iuniperorum), spruce (Abiegnis) and thuja (Thuja occidentalis).
Barberry: plant features
It is not surprising that barberries are so dearly loved by many gardeners. Due to the high decorative qualities, this shrub is able to decorate any site. In addition, it is easy to grow and unpretentious in care.