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Monarda - the plant is not only pretty pretty, but also useful. Monarda decoction can be used as tea or medicine for pain in the stomach and at elevated temperature. That is why monarda is so popular among summer residents of the country.
The monarda genus has about 20 different varieties that grow mainly in Canada, Mexico and North America. A perennial or annual plant with stems that can be either straight or more branched. Plant height sometimes reaches one and a half meters. Leaves are simple, oblong, serrated. Monarda flowers can be white, pink, red, purple or yellowish. They are collected in dense capitate or racemose inflorescences. The fruit of the monarda is a nut. The leaves, flowers and stems of the monarda have a pleasant, fragrant aroma that resembles mint or lemon, depending on the plant variety.
At the moment, monarda is known to many people. Some use it as an ordinary plant that decorates a summer cottage, others use the monard in cooking recipes as a spice. But the plant also has medicinal properties that are widely used in folk medicine, for example, for the treatment of colds, pain in the stomach or to lower body temperature. In the native countries, monarda is found quite often, sometimes turning into a weed plant with its extensive plantations, but in our regions, monarda is valued for its qualities. The greatest distribution in dachas and land plots was monard lemon, fragrant, monard double, dot, soft, monard Russell and other varieties.
Today, as perennials, the most common types of monarda are described below.
A plant that came to our lands from the Great Lakes region, located in North America. The monarda is double - a perennial plant with a long, horizontal rhizome, its growth reaches 80 cm. The stems are tetrahedral, leafy, erect, have many thin hairs. The leaves of the monard double are located opposite on the stems, on short petioles with stipules of a reddish color. Size about 6-12 cm, color - light green. The shape of the leaves is rounded, pointed and slightly serrated at the edges. The flowers can be purple or lilac, rather small in size. The fruit of the plant is dry, cracking upon ripening into four nuts.
Monarda duochny, or tubular
The tubular monarda was brought to our zones from the forests of North America. We most often meet in the Caucasus. In European countries, the plant is grown as a spicy and fragrant plant to create seasonings. A large number of monarda tubular stems reaches a height of 120 centimeters. Leaves pubescent with thin hairs, serrated, simple type. Small flowers are connected in false whorls and overgrown with red bracts. On each stalk there are up to nine inflorescences of a rather large size, about 5-8 cm. The monarda tubular blooms for about 50 days, starting in July.
This name combines a hybrid of the monard tubular and the monard double. The origin of this flower is unknown. The plant is perennial, its height is about 100 cm. The flowers of the hybrid monarda can be of different colors, starting with small white ones and ending with larger purple flowers. Among the hybrid monarda varieties, there are many sub-varieties, which mainly differ in the frequency of flowering, color of leaves and flowers. If you are interested in the plant, we are pleased to give you the names of the varieties that can be found in our country for planting on our own land: Zinta-Zinta, Pony, Fishey, Blue Stocking, Blaustrumumpf, Sunset, Elsiz Lavende, Cardinal, Creitley Pink, Rose Quinn, Schneewithhen, Petit Delight, Sne Meyden and other great varieties that will decorate your flower garden.
The location of the monard in the garden
Most good monarda refers to sunny areas, but also grows well in partial shade. In order for a plant with thin stems not to lie on the ground and not to warp from wind and strong storms, it is necessary to plant a monard in a quiet, protected place.
In fact, the culture is undemanding to the soil, however, the best monarda grows on light calcareous. Acidic and heavy marshy soils are completely unsuitable for growing monarda. If the plant was planted in poor soil, then for its flowering and maintenance of vitality it will be necessary to feed it with a special complex of fertilizers.
Monarda: cultivation and beneficial properties
Landing monarda on the site
The monarda is prepared for landing, starting in the fall. Dig the soil, completely clear of weeds and possible residues of rhizomes of other plants. Then a mixture of manure, compost and peat, about 2-3 kg per square meter of the prepared soil, is introduced into the soil. It also does not hurt to add 40-50 g of superphosphate and the same portion of potassium salt per 1 m². If suddenly the chosen place for planting with acidic soil, then liming is mandatory, 40-50 g of lime per 1 m². From spring, nitrogen fertilizer, approximately 20-30 g per 1 m², will need to be added to the soil. In order for the plant to have sufficient area for growth and nutrition, it is required to plant the monard at a distance of at least 60 cm from each other.
Features and Care
In dry weather, the plant necessarily requires watering, moderate, but timely, otherwise the plant may become infected with powdery mildew. With a hot summer, the monard must be mulched with humus or peat and not spare fertilizers. The culture is quite resistant to various weather conditions, pests and diseases, but every 3-4 years it is advisable to remove the bushes and re-plant them in the garden, you can even change the location, since the monard degenerates.
Features of growing monarda
With proper care, the monard grows quite quickly and therefore it will be necessary to divide its plantations every few years. This happens in the spring when the plant is just starting to turn green. The monard should be divided by first digging the bush with a shovel around the perimeter of the territory that should remain behind the plant. Rhizomes are cut into several parts. Each of them should have several healthy shoots. Then the monarda is planted like seedlings, fed, watered.
Monarda can be sown and seeds. They do not have a dormant period and therefore are sown immediately after harvest. Sowing depth - 1-2 cm, the norm on the area - 0.5 g per 1 m². For uniform distribution of seeds across the soil, they are mixed with sand and sown at a temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius. Shoots grow slowly, but only they become more noticeable, they must be weed so that they are not oppressed by weeds.
Plant diseases and pests
Monarda itself is quite resistant to defeat by diseases and pests. Due to overdried soil, a disease such as powdery mildew can occur, which is simply worn out by mulching or sufficient moisture. Also, a sufficient amount of special fertilizers must be applied to the soil. Also, very rarely, a plant may be affected by rust or the tobacco mosaic virus, from pests - weevils. But more often, monarda grows without being affected by plant pests, as it repels them with the content of essential oils in the root system.
Application of monarda
The plant is often used in group flower beds, in mixborders. Looks great in bouquets, as it has the ability to maintain freshness for up to three weeks. Also, there is an increased interest in the plant among cooks who often use a spicy and fragrant plant in addition to their own and classic recipes.