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Soil for conifers has its own characteristics. Therefore, the use of ordinary soil for planting firs, pines and spruces is not permissible. The secrets of soil preparation for conifers are discussed later in the article.
Features of soil for conifers
The optimal composition of the soil for all coniferous representatives is a mixture of the following components:
- peat (can be replaced with marsh duckweed);
- sand (preferably river use);
- sod land.
There are a number of nuances that should be considered when choosing soil for conifers:
- Soil structure is an important factor. The ideal option is a “sponge” condition, so that at least a quarter of the soil is occupied by pores. Calcium will help to achieve this.
- Each type of coniferous plant has its own requirements for the moisture content of the substrate. For cypress trees and firs, the same proportion of moisture and air permeability is important, and junipers are demanding for filling the soil with air. Fir, on the other hand, can endure many hardships, but excess moisture in the substrate can be detrimental to these conifers.
- Most of the conifers can only grow safely in a substrate with a high acidity index, and some of them, on the contrary, prefer a quieter acidic "atmosphere". Therefore, this fact must also be taken into account when choosing a soil.
The right choice of soil for each of the species will help to avoid the many problems associated with growing conifers.
Soil for fir trees
The main condition for caring for evergreen spruce is the correct selection of soil. The plant belongs to mycotrophs (it has the ability to form symbiotic bonds with the hyphae of the fungi of the earth, which favor the absorption of microelements from the soil). In view of this, the acidity of the substrate suitable for planting spruce should be in the range of 4.5 - 6.0 pH. At higher values, the soil is enriched with bacteria that inhibit the growth of fungi that are beneficial to the plant.
Another important condition that the spruce substrate must meet is good aeration. Spruce can grow safely on sandy and poor soils, but it does not tolerate stagnant moisture. One rainy season is enough for a tree to die.
Attention! If the tree is planted in the scorching sun or in deep shade, then even high-quality soil will not guarantee good growth.
Soil for pine trees
The soil for conifers, which include pine trees, should be sandy or sandy loam. When planting pine in clay soil, additional drainage will be required. You can use broken brick, expanded clay crushed stone, as well as river sand.
Before planting coniferous seedlings, it is also necessary to add nitrogen fertilizer. It will take effect after a couple of weeks.
The acidity of the substrate is also taken into account when planting such types of pine as weymouth and black. These conifers prefer neutral or alkaline soil. You can reduce acidity by using ordinary lime, which is added to the planting substrate. The amount of lime should be in the range of 200 - 300 g.
Soil for junipers
Juniper is not so picky about the composition of the soil, it can grow in loamy areas that have a weak drainage system, rocky ground and sandstones. But for young seedlings, it is better to give preference to the following mixture of components:
- peat - 1 part;
- sod land - 2 parts;
- river sand - 1 part.
You can also add a universal fertilizer (nitroammofosku) to the mixture, which can be used for most horticultural crops.
In the case of planting this representative of conifers in loamy soil, it is best to organize additional drainage for it from improvised means - brick chips, pebbles, etc.
When planting a coniferous plant in rocky ground, you need to pay attention to the surrounding vegetation. If there are many weeds around the proposed planting site, then it will be a favorable option for placing juniper seedlings. This trick is used not only by Russian gardeners, but also by American specialists in the cultivation of conifers.
Land for larch
Like juniper, larches can live in almost any soil. For representatives of conifers, whose natural habitat is sphagnum bogs, soil with high acidity (pH 3.5 - 5.5) is suitable. Species growing in mountainous areas will get along on alkaline substrates (pH 7.0 and higher). For the rest, a substrate with neutral acidity is suitable.
Despite the fact that in nature larch can grow in wetlands (with the exception of American and Japanese larch, as well as Griffith), where the substrate has poor drainage and aeration, breeding species are more demanding. "Domesticated" varieties can suffer from excess moisture, up to complete death. Drainage equipment made of brick particles, expanded clay crushed stone or pebbles will help reduce the risk of adverse situations.
The soil, considered optimal for larch, can be loamy or containing sandy loam. Acidity can be normal or low, humidity is medium or high.
Soil for cedars
The soil for conifers, the composition of which varies depending on the type of plant, almost always contains a large amount of sand. Cedar prefers a sandy loam or loamy substrate, in which even young seedlings take root well. If it is clayey at the planting site, then to improve the growth of the tree, it is recommended to dilute it with sand and peat (2 parts of the land require the same amount of sand and 1 part of peat).
Many gardeners add a number of fertilizers to the soil:
- wood ash;
- coniferous land from the forest.
Important! It is necessary to prepare the soil immediately before planting by taking out a clod of earth and mixing all of the above components with it.
The soil for conifers such as cedars can be brought from their natural habitats. If the seedling was taken from a specialized nursery, then there is a possibility that the young plant is accustomed to more loyal growing conditions. It is important to consider such a moment at the time of purchasing cedar, since this factor affects the proportions of the components that make up the soil. For pampered individuals, the amount of sand must be doubled.
Soil for tui
Another representative of conifers is thuja. For her, a soil is preferable in which there will be a lot of trace elements, moisture and drainage. The best option for the substrate is a mixture of peat and sand (1 part each) with earth (2 parts). Its acidity should not go beyond 5 - 6 pH values.
If there is loamy soil on the site, then one year before planting a coniferous plant, it must be brought to the appropriate parameters by introducing the above components into the ground. As a drainage system, it is permissible to use coarse sand, pebbles or small crushed stone from expanded clay, as well as fragments of burnt bricks.
Soil for fir
Fir is quite whimsical, in comparison with its coniferous brethren. Well-drained loamy soil is suitable for her, in which moisture does not retain. In a dry place, a coniferous plant can quickly die, just as in a swampy one. The best option is a site located near the reservoir, where the soil will meet all the necessary parameters.
Attention! Stagnant water can lead to the development of fungal pathologies in fir.
Land for cypress trees
The soil for conifers, the composition of which can be called ideal, is prepared by experienced gardeners on their own. Despite the presence of balanced mixtures in stores, those wishing to start breeding cypress make a substrate from the following components:
- 3 parts of sod land;
- 2 parts of coniferous humus;
- 1 part sand.
In the absence of coniferous humus, it can be replaced with peat, but the quality of the soil will significantly decrease. To improve the performance, it is recommended to introduce a small amount of clay and vermiculite into the mixture.
Important! Growing cypress trees on peat alone can be a temporary measure. As soon as possible, the plant should be transplanted into a better substrate.
If making the soil yourself is not possible, then the azalea soil will be the best option for this coniferous plant. It contains the necessary components that provide the necessary soil acidity.
Soil for yew trees
Yew prefers light soil. Despite this, it must contain a large amount of trace elements. Gardeners have their own opinion on the composition of the substrate for yews:
- 3 parts of sod or leafy land;
- 2 parts of coniferous humus or peat;
- 2 parts of coarse sand.
Soil for conifers must be selected depending on the type of plant. So, berry yew can only feel comfortable on alkaline and slightly acidic soils. The pointed yew tree prefers soil with a neutral pH. For medium yew, it is better to choose slightly alkaline or neutral soil.
The main enemy of this coniferous plant is the high humidity of the substrate, as well as the polluted environment. If the first point concerning the level of moisture can be easily corrected by adding more peat and drainage equipment to the soil, then even additional vitamin supplements will not help in the fight against environmental pollution. Therefore, yew is never planted within the city.
Choosing a soil for conifers is not always as easy as it seems initially. Since there is no optimal soil composition, when choosing a substrate for each specific species, it is recommended to take into account not only its preferences, but also the existing natural conditions.