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Eggplant is a perennial plant, but our gardeners, for some reason, grow it as an annual. The eggplant fruit can be not only a purple cylinder, but also a berry of completely different colors. Eggplant skin color varies from dark brown with a reddish tint to brown with a grayish tint, depending on the variety. The fruit can be pear-shaped, serpentine, spherical with white or slightly greenish flesh.
Eggplant is exotic in that its homeland is India. The name "eggplant" is translated from Latin as "nightshade with apple". The ancient Romans believed that eggplant is a poisonous vegetable and that whoever eats it will become insane. It is also known as badrijan.
Modern eggplant hybrids are distinguished by their high taste and fertility. A sufficient number of ripe fruits can be collected from one bush per season, which are ready for transportation, storage and, of course, for eating.
Varieties and hybrids
All eggplants grown in our country belong to the Central Asian type of eggplant, to the ecological-geographical groups of the east and west. The eastern group represents early ripening varieties, while the western group represents mid and late ripening varieties.
Consider the best and most farmed eggplant varieties.
The bush of such an eggplant hybrid reaches an impressive size compared to others. It reaches 1.2 m in height. This eggplant can be grown in all types of greenhouses. Eggplants Baikal F1 are distinguished by their unpretentiousness and are resistant to various kinds of diseases. The fruits are usually pear-shaped, they are dark purple in color with a glossy surface. The pulp has a medium density structure without bitterness. These are the best fruits for frying, making caviar for the winter. Fruits are good for pickling, salting and stewing. The yield of such a hybrid is 6-8 kg per sq. m. Average fruit weighing 320 - 350 grams.
This hybrid grows with brushes. Each cluster consists of 4 fruits, one bush produces on average up to 100 fruits in one season.
Since this variety has such a growth form, the fruits are elongated and oval. The color of the fruit is also different - they are brightly acidic in color. The flesh of such eggplants is tender and tasty, and the crust is thin. The plant perfectly resists various viruses, including the tobacco mosaic virus. Since the bushes of this eggplant are not too tall, as a rule, they do not exceed 1.3 m, they are excellent for all kinds of greenhouses. The yield of this hybrid is up to 8 kg per 1 sq. M. A ripe fruit weighs up to 130 grams.
This plant grows up to 3 meters high and has spreading branches with thick stems. Fruits grow large up to 500 grams weighing cylindrical and dark purple in color. The pulp is dense, greenish, and retains its shape during heat treatment. This hybrid belongs to the late, so the fruit is worth waiting for a long time, but this expectation is justified. In addition to the fact that eggplants are very tasty, they are also suitable for long storage and transportation. A hybrid of such an eggplant is resistant to all sorts of diseases, especially if it is grown according to all the rules.
This variety of late-ripening eggplants is quite versatile. It is convenient for him both in the greenhouse and in the open field. Its bushes are low, but spreading. This is just a godsend for those who have a lack of planted area or it is limited.
The fruits are pear-shaped and dark brown in color, very fleshy and dense, weighing up to 900 grams. For such an eggplant, spraying is required for prevention and constant care, since they are susceptible to many diseases, but at the same time they perfectly tolerate adverse weather conditions.
This hybrid is called ultra-early, since the fruits are ready for consumption before the rest, it takes from 70 to 90 days to ripen.
The bushes grow to a medium height and have a semi-sprawling appearance; dark purple cylindrical fruits with a pronounced glossy shine ripen on them. Fruits are small in size, weighing about 200 grams, but they have a pronounced taste of mushrooms, which allows them to be used for preparing interesting dishes, these are the best eggplants for Caucasian cuisine. The plant is not susceptible to verticellosis, it is not damaged by spider mites. In addition, the fruits do not lose their shape and appearance for a long time, which allows them to be stored longer than the main varieties.
Purple Miracle F1
It is a truly versatile variety that can be grown in a greenhouse or outdoors.
Eggplant is absolutely insensitive to sunlight and daylight hours. This feature helps to grow it in the conditions of Siberian weather and the Far North. Fruits grow deep purple and spindle-shaped with a glossy skin. These eggplants can be cooked as you like, due to the fact that they are not at all bitter, like many varieties. They are resistant to many diseases, but they still need care and treatment against diseases.
An interesting hybrid that gets along well in a greenhouse. The plant is small, has a very active growth.
The fruits are located at the very bottom of the bush. They represent a cylinder with a color that varies from purple to almost black. Fruits weighing about 250 grams have a tasty and moderately strong light green pulp. The variety is quite resistant to various diseases that this crop is susceptible to.
A mid-season plant with dense fruits, which, as they ripen, stretch slightly. Usually these eggplants are dark purple with a glossy sheen. Such fruits are a priority for housewives and those who adhere to a healthy diet, since they almost do not taste bitter, but have a soft dark white pulp with pronounced taste. The most important thing for this variety is moisture and sunlight. If these factors are enough for eggplants, then no diseases are terrible for the culture.
An early maturing hybrid enters the stage of fruit ripening 120 days after planting. The bush grows medium in height, about 1.5 meters, slightly spreading with a thick stem. Fruits in the final stage of ripening weigh 280 grams. The most interesting thing that can be distinguished from this variety is the mauve color. The fruit has a pure white flesh with high palatability.
Tirrenia F and Anet F1
Known all over the world and perhaps the best seed producer - the Dutch company "Nunems" sells its eggplant hybrids, which are perfect for growing outdoors from spring to autumn. These varieties are classified as early maturing, but they bear fruit until frost. Tyrrenia fruits grow quite large in size up to 700 grams, they are round-elongated. The seeds in the pulp are very small and almost invisible; closer to autumn they do not remain at all, which is the result of parthenocarpies. This is the formation of fruits without pollination. Eggplant has a strong stem and leaves, but is compact in size. Anet produces smaller, elongated, cylindrical fruits. The plant is distinguished by its height and luxurious leaves that perfectly resist parasitic insects.
The plant is of medium height, about 150 cm, semi-spreading type with well-developed bright green leaves and smooth edges. On the surface of the leaves, a slight prickling can be observed. Oval fruits weighing 350 grams and about 14 cm long. The values of the variety are its early maturity, good presentation and taste, high yield.
It is an early maturing hybrid that ripens 90 days after planting. A compact plant with a height not exceeding 80 cm, they bear small ovoid fruits weighing 80 grams of the original striped color. This crop belongs to a form that is neutral to the length of the day, but needs constant soil moisture. Like all eggplants, this hybrid gives the best results in loose, mineral-rich soil. Ideal, of course, will be chernozem soil, but its loamy type or sandy loamy type with a large amount of organic matter in it is also suitable. The culture responds well to the introduction of mineral or organic fertilizers during fruit ripening. This eggplant will be an excellent solution for growing in a pot on the balcony.
Above were presented the best varieties of eggplants that can be grown in central Russia, and some to the north due to their properties and characteristics. Now we should talk about how to grow these hybrids so that they please with a large harvest and excellent taste. The hybrids are clearly shown in the following video https://youtu.be/zYc5p-ZLmUk
Some tips for growing eggplant hybrids
Since eggplants are planted as seedlings, it must be properly prepared. To do this, you need to plant seedlings in a heated greenhouse or at home in small pots or mineral cubes. Before planting eggplants, you need to prepare a nutritious soil for them, which will consist of 6 parts of fertile sod land, 4 parts of humus and 1 part of sand. It is in such a mixture that eggplant seeds are planted so that they take from the soil all the substances necessary for growth.
Before planting them in the ground in the garden, you need to harden the seedlings. If the temperature outside is not lower than 10 degrees, then the boxes with seedlings are taken out. These are the best conditions for hardening. It is imperative to feed with superphosphate when there are 2 true leaves on the stem.
Seedlings are planted only when the root system is fully developed, and this can be determined by the appearance of the plant. It should be about 20 cm high, have 8 - 9 full leaves and several buds. If the seedlings are planted in a heated greenhouse, then this is done in late March - early April. And if not heated, then disembarkation is made only at the beginning of May.
It is best to use bulk soil for growing, which consists of humus, peat and garden soil. It will be useful to pre-apply fertilizers such as superphosphate, potassium salt and wood ash. This soil is best introduced into the greenhouse in the fall, so that by spring it is infused and ready to accept new plants.
In addition to proper planting, eggplant throughout its life necessarily requires constant care, which consists in maintaining optimal conditions of humidity and temperature, timely loosening of the soil, protection from pests and diseases, and regular watering. On daytime, the temperature in the greenhouse should be at the level of 24 - 28 degrees Celsius with an air humidity of no more than 60 - 70%. The soil must be constantly in a loose state, therefore, after each watering, the earth is loosened.
The best varieties of eggplant are presented in this article. They will give a good harvest with one hundred percent guarantee, but with proper and constant care for them. Despite the fact that they give a good harvest, eggplant is still a whimsical culture and requires sufficient attention from the gardener.