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Yakushimansky rhododendron is a spectacular representative of the Heather family. The plant is distinguished by abundant flowering and winter hardiness. On the basis of this form, numerous varieties have been obtained that take root well in central Russia.
Description of the Yakushiman rhododendron
In nature, the Yakushiman rhododendron grows on the southern islands of Japan at an altitude of more than 1900 m above sea level.
This plant is believed to have survived the Ice Age. This was due to the formation of warm places on the sea coast.
In Europe, the Yakushiman species spread only in the 30s of the XX century. The plant won first place at the Chelsea Flower Show. Since then, it has been used to produce new frost-resistant hybrids.
According to the photo and description, the Yakushiman rhododendron is an evergreen shrub that reaches a height of 1 m. Its leaves are elliptical or oblong, in the middle part they are the widest. The length of the leaf plate is up to 15 cm, the width is 4 cm. The foliage is dark green above, naked, with a glossy surface. On the reverse side, it is light yellow, there is pubescence.
Flowers bloom in inflorescences of 10 - 12 pieces. Their corollas are in the form of a wide funnel or bell. The petals are pink with dark spots and later turn white. The diameter of the flowers is up to 6 cm. The flowering is long and abundant. The first buds bloom in May.
In September-October, seeds are formed in the capsules. The shrub develops slowly. The maximum growth per year is 5 cm. The life of the plant is up to 25 years. Its winter hardiness is high, about -29 ° C.
Yakushiman rhododendron varieties
Numerous varieties have been bred on the basis of the natural form of the Yakushimansky rhododendron. All of them are distinguished by good winter hardiness and decorative properties. Hybrids are suitable for growing in the Moscow region and the middle lane.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Golden Toch
The Golden Toch variety, or Golden Torch, is a compact, undersized shrub. Its leaves are large, leathery, elongated, up to 10 cm long. The plant produces numerous inflorescences. Pink buds with creamy petals. Inside, the flowers are yellow-orange. The flowering period is from May to June. Winter hardiness of the Golden Torch rhododendron is high, about -24 ° C.
Planting and caring for the Golden Torch rhododendron involves choosing a moderately lit place. It is advisable that the bright sun does not affect the plant in the afternoon. The flower is sensitive to lack of moisture.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Bluuretta
Bluretta is a small shrub that produces little growth. Its crown is dense, in the form of a dome. The height does not exceed 0.9 m. In width, the culture grows to 1.3 m.
The inflorescences of this variety are conical in shape. The petals are pink-purple, wavy at the edges. Flowering begins in the last decade of May - early June. Even young plants release buds.
The Yakushimansky variety Bluretta is suitable for the middle lane. The plant can withstand frosts in the range of -23 - 18 ° C. It prefers shady areas or partial shade. Drought tolerance - medium, moderate watering required.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Kalinka
The Yakushiman rhododendron Kalinka is an outstanding variety that has received many awards at international exhibitions. The plant is 80 - 120 cm high, sometimes up to 140 cm. Its crown is thickened, rounded, grows up to 1.5 m. The roots are located in the upper layer of the soil. Leaves are oval or slightly elongated, leathery. Above, a leaf plate of a saturated green color, on the back side - a lighter one.
Crimson buds turn pink and purple when blooming. The flower petals are corrugated, the color is darker at the edges, on the inside - with yellow-brown spots. Flowers are collected in inflorescences, appear towards the end of May.
Important! The Yakushimansky variety Kalinka is distinguished by high frost resistance and tolerates cold temperatures down to -25 ° С.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Brazil
Brazilian rhododendron is a compact bush up to 1.2 m high. Its crown is columnar. The leaves are large and shiny, dark green in color. The culture grows well in the shade and partial shade. Yakushimansky variety Brazil prefers moist soils. At the same time, stagnation of water is not allowed.
The flowers are pale apricot in color with a yellow funnel-shaped spot. The petals are corrugated. The inflorescences are dense and abundant, consisting of 12-15 flowers. Flowering begins in early May and lasts until the end of June.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Lorelei
Lorelei is a type of Yakushiman rhododendron. The shrub is compact, has a wide oval shape. Its leaves are elliptical, dark green, pointed at the tips, with a shiny surface. An adult plant up to 0.8 m high. Frost resistance is up to -22 ° C.
The Lorelei variety blooms in May and June. Light pink buds. The edges of the petals are corrugated, with a darker border. Flowers are collected in inflorescences and bloom at the tops of the shoots.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Lichtfair
Lichtfair is an evergreen shrub that prefers shady areas or light partial shade. An adult plant is about 1.1 m high and up to 1.3 m wide. It looks impressive in single plantings and in combination with other varieties.
In May-June, the shrub produces bright red flowers. They are formed in inflorescences of 10 - 12 pieces. Flowering begins in early May and ends at the end of the month. The edges of the petals are wavy, in the middle of their color is lighter. Inflorescences are large, more than 10 cm in size. The leaves of the plant are green, oblong, slightly twisted around the edges.
Yakushiman rhododendron Rose Volke
The Yakushimansky variety Roza Volke is a medium-sized evergreen shrub. An adult plant has a height of 1.2 m. In width it grows up to 2 m. The annual growth is 10 cm. The leaves are leathery, emerald-colored - in the form of an ellipse.
The buds bloom in May-June. The Rosa Volke variety produces double flowers of a pale pink color. Their petals are terry, with a bright red border. Flowers are collected in clusters of 6 - 15 pieces. The frost resistance of the culture is average, not more than -22 ° С.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Lumina
The Lumina variety is an evergreen shrub that does not exceed 90 cm in height. The leaves are large, with a shiny surface. The frost resistance of the plant is increased. Its crown is spherical, compact. Leaves are elongated, leathery. The plant survives winters with cold temperatures down to -28 ° C.
The flowering of the Yakushiman variety Lumin is abundant and long-lasting. Its flowers are large, 4 - 6 cm wide. The petals are pink, corrugated at the edges. Towards the end of flowering, their color fades. The first buds bloom in the last days of May. Flowering lasts until the middle of the next month.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Mix
Mix variety is an evergreen shrub. A plant with oblong dark green leaves. The bush grows to a height of 2.2 m. The inflorescences are large, consisting of 6 - 8 flowers. The petals are dark pink, lighter in the middle. Flowering takes place in May-June.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Hummingbird
The Yakushimansky variety Kolibri is an evergreen shrub, reaching a height of 0.8 m. The crown size of an adult plant is up to 1.2 cm. Its leaves are oval, elongated, slightly convex. The length of the leaf plate is up to 10 cm. The crown is compact, spherical in shape.
The Yakushimansky variety Hummingbird blooms from the second half of May to the first decade of June. The culture grows slowly, by 5 cm annually. The petals are light pink with white spots. The frost resistance of the shrub is no more than -22 ° С.
Advice! Abundant flowering of the Kolibri variety is provided by fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Shneekrone
Rhododendron Schneekrone is an outstanding variety that has received many medals at international exhibitions. The plant is round and compact. Its height is from 0.8 to 1 m. In width, the shrub grows up to 1.7 m. The leaves are large, dark green, elongated.
The Schneekrone variety blooms from the third week of May to mid-June. The buds are pale pink, bright white, corrugated at the edges. There are brown spots on the upper petal. Flowers are collected in globular inflorescences. Rhododendron Schneekrone is frost-resistant down to -25 ° C.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Dreamland
A popular variety of the Yakushim rhododendron. An adult bush grows wide and you are 1.2 m. Its crown is spherical, spreading. Leaves are leathery, dark in color, up to 10 cm long. The annual growth is 8 cm. The frost resistance of the variety is -23 ° C.
The flowering of the Dreamland variety begins in late May and lasts until early June. The buds are bright pink in color. The blossoming flowers are white, with a yellowish spot. They have a strong odor and sizes up to 6 cm. Flowers are collected in round compact inflorescences of 6 - 12 pieces.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Carolina Albrook
Carolina Albrook is a well-known English cultivar appreciated for its early flowering. The bushes are vigorous, rounded, up to 0.9 m high. Adult rhododendrons grow up to 1.2 m wide. Their leaves are rich green, elongated, with a pointed tip. The shrub can withstand cold temperatures down to -25 ° C.
The Carolina Albrook variety blooms in June. The flowers are purple at first and gradually change to pale purple. They have a yellowish pattern inside. Inflorescences 12 cm in size consist of 12 - 16 flowers. Each of them is 6 cm in size.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Tatiana
The Tatiana variety is an evergreen shrub 0.8 m high. The rhododendron grows up to 1.2 m wide. The buds begin to bloom at the end of May. The hybrid is distinguished by long flowering, which is more than one month.
The flowers of the Tatiana variety are carmine pink in color, lighter inside. The edges of the petals are wavy. Leaves are dense, dark green, leathery. The leaf plate is slightly curved. The inflorescences of the culture are spherical, appear at the ends of the shoots. The variety prefers soils with good drainage properties. The plant is sensitive to water stagnation.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Annushka
The Annushka variety is a dense evergreen shrub characterized by abundant flowering. Its leaves are large, leathery, elliptical in shape. The shrub grows in height up to 1 m, in width - up to 1.5 m. The winter hardiness of rhododendron is increased, it is -26 ° С.
Annushka hybrid blooms in late spring - early summer. The flowers are pink in color, lighter inside. The upper petal has dark red spots. The variety tolerates spring frosts well. The shrub grows slowly. Its development is negatively affected by stagnation of moisture in the soil.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Izadora
The Yakushimansky variety Izadora is distinguished by its unpretentiousness. At the age of 10, it grows up to 1.5 m. The leaves on the lips are rounded, elongated, pointed at the tips. Frost resistance is -24 ° С.
The flowering of the Isadora hybrid occurs in May. The petals are lilac-pink in color. Flowers are formed in spherical inflorescences of 8 - 12 pieces. The edges of the petals are wavy, on the top there are dark red specks.
Attention! Peat and dry leaves are used to shelter the Izador variety.
Rhododendron Yakushimansky Sneezy is an evergreen shrub, reaching a height of 1 m. Its leaves are elongated, glossy, saturated green. When blooming, the foliage is silvery-felt. The hybrid has a winter hardiness of -23 ° C.
The flowers of the Snizi variety are funnel-shaped, with corrugated edges, 6 cm in size. Their color is complex: from purple to pale pink. The upper petal has a dark red spot. The dome-shaped inflorescence consists of 15-16 flowers. Abundant flowering of the shrub, annual.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Fantasy
The Yakushimansky variety Fantastika is distinguished by its high winter hardiness: up to -30 ° С. A hybrid up to 1.5 m high has large flowers up to 6 cm in size, which are formed in inflorescences of 10 - 12 pieces. The buds bloom in early June. The color of the petals is light pink, with a bright border.
Rhododendron Yakushiman Percy Weissman
The Percy Weissman variety is distinguished by its increased winter hardiness. The shrub tolerates cold temperatures down to -30 ° C. The height of the rhododendron is up to 1.5 m. Its leaves are long, dark green, leathery. Flowers - large, up to 6 cm in size, grow in inflorescences of 12 pieces. Petals of complex color: from pale yellow to pink. The buds bloom in May-June.
Planting and caring for the Yakushiman rhododendron
The key to the successful cultivation of the Yakushiman rhododendron is the right choice of a place for planting. Then the plot and the plant are prepared. During the growing season, the shrub is provided with care: watered, fed, prepared for wintering.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
The Yakushiman rhododendron prefers partial shade, where the sun is only in the first half of the day. The plant is suitable for decorating the northern side of the garden, where more light-loving flowers do not take root well. The site should be protected from the wind in the form of a fence, building wall or larger bushes.
The shrub grows well on fresh peaty soils, acidic or slightly acidic. For the soil, moisture is constantly maintained, however, stagnant water is detrimental to the shrub. Hybrids are suitable for the design of alpine slides, rocky gardens, paths and alleys. Rhododendrons of different varieties look spectacular in group plantings. However, evergreen varieties are not planted next to deciduous ones.
After choosing a site, they begin to prepare it. The earth is dug up, weeds and remnants of previous crops are removed. If the soil is too heavy, coarse river sand and peat will be required. Rhododendron grows best in a substrate consisting of leafy soil, peat and coniferous forest litter.
For planting, choose the Yakushiman rhododendron grown in containers. Such shrubs take root well in a new place. Before disembarking, they are removed from the containers. The roots are cleared of soil and placed in clean water. To improve the survival rate of the seedling, a corner growth stimulator is added to the liquid.
The Yakushimansky rhododendron in the Moscow region and the middle lane is planted in the spring. They wait until the snow cover melts and the soil warms up. Plants tolerate transplanting without any problems.
The order of planting the Yakushiman rhododendron:
- Dig a hole 60 cm deep and 70 cm wide.
- Place a 15 cm thick drainage made of gravel or broken brick on the bottom.
- Pour the substrate into the pit with the addition of 100 g of complex mineral fertilizer.
- Plant a bush. In this case, do not deepen the root collar, but leave it 3 cm above the ground level.
- Water the soil abundantly with acidified water.
- Mulch the soil with peat and pine needles.
Watering and feeding
Yakushiman rhododendrons need regular watering. Do not allow the soil to dry out. In hot weather, 5 - 6 liters of water are poured under each bush. In the morning or evening, the plants are sprayed. Use warm, settled water. If it is too hard and contains a lot of salts, then a day before watering, 2 - 3 handfuls of peat should be placed in a barrel.
Advice! Signs of moisture deficiency in rhododendrons are drooping leaves with a matte surface. When they appear, the plant is immediately watered.
Mulching helps to retain moisture in the soil. Peat, moss and pine needles are poured into the trunk circle. Weeds are regularly weeded under the rhododendron. After watering, the soil is slightly loosened. Plant roots are close to the surface of the ground, so it is important not to damage them.
The Yakushiman rhododendron is fed every 2 to 3 years. In the spring, a nutrient mixture is introduced into the soil in the form of rotted manure.Plants benefit from mineral dressings containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Purchase ready-made compositions or mix ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium sulfate in a 2: 1: 1 ratio. After flowering, only potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used. For young plantings, the dose of fertilizer is reduced.
Yakushiman rhododendron does not require regular pruning. The crown of the shrub is formed in a natural way. For the plant, it is enough to carry out sanitary pruning. In spring and autumn, rhododendron is examined and dry, frozen, broken shoots are identified. They are removed with a secateurs. The procedure is carried out when the plant is at rest, in order to less injure it.
Preparing for winter
Even cold-resistant rhododendron varieties need winter preparation. Until the soil is frozen, the plants are watered abundantly. Then they are covered with dry leaves and spruce branches. If a cold winter is expected, then the shrubs will need additional insulation. A frame is erected above them and agrofibre or kraft paper is attached to it.
In the spring, the shelter is removed in late March - early April. So that the leaves of the Yakushiman rhododendron do not suffer from the bright sun, the spruce branches are not removed at first. Otherwise, the bush will get burned.
Natural forms of the Yakushiman rhododendron are propagated by seeds. They are harvested at the end of September - October. In the spring, the seeds are planted in boxes filled with a substrate of peat and sand. The material is not deepened, but spread over the surface. Sprinkle on top with a thin layer of sand and watered abundantly. The boxes are covered with glass and kept warm. Seedlings appear in 18 - 20 days.
The inputs of the Yakushiman rhododendron are acutely responsive to lack of moisture. Plants are protected from the bright sun and watered regularly. The duration of daylight hours should be at least 16 hours. In June, seedlings dive in separate containers. In the summer they are kept outside, and in the fall they are taken indoors. The rhododendron is planted in a permanent place only in the 3rd year, when the seedlings are sufficiently strong.
Advice! Yakushiman rhododendron hybrids are propagated by cuttings. When grown through seed, there is no guarantee that the shrub will retain its varietal characteristics.
Rhododendron cuttings are harvested in summer. For this purpose, half-lignified shoots with a length of 8 - 10 cm are cut off. They are rooted in a container filled with sand and peat. The root system is formed within 30 to 45 days. Then the cuttings are transferred to containers with nutrient soil. They are regularly watered and fed with mineral complexes. In open ground, rhododendron is planted in the 3rd year.
Diseases and pests
If agricultural technology is violated, the Yakushiman rhododendron can be susceptible to diseases and pests. At high soil moisture, signs of fungal diseases appear on the plants: dark or gray spots. Bordeaux liquid, the drug Fundazol, copper oxychloride helps to fight lesions. The shrub is sprayed over the leaf.
The Yakushiman rhododendron attracts scale insects, weevils, spider mites, and slugs. Pests feed on the aboveground part of plants, slow down their development and worsen their decorative appearance. Insecticides are used against insects Iskra, Actellik, Karbofos. A working solution is prepared for spraying. If necessary, reprocessing is carried out after 1 - 2 weeks.
The Yakushiman rhododendron is grown far beyond the borders of Japan. The shrub has a decorative look and fits well into the landscape design of the garden. For growing rhododendron, choose a suitable place on the site. During the growing season, he needs watering and feeding.