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There are many ovens for cooking in the world, some of which have survived to our times. One of these furnaces is the tandoor, which is widespread in Asia and among some peoples of the Caucasus. In different languages, the word tandoor is pronounced differently: in Armenian - tonir, in Azerbaijani - tandoor, although the essence does not change from this. This is a jug-shaped oven in which food is cooked by roasting with wood heat.
What is a tandoor?
In the original version, the oriental kiln was made from a mixture of clay and wool, it was dried for a week until it was able to be made from it. The furnace was sculpted, not built. This process is quite time-consuming and associated with failures, because ignorance of the exact recipe and a violation in the technology of drying and firing can lead to the fact that the finished product can crack or poorly retain heat.
It is very difficult to make ceramic east stoves on your own in the latitudes of which our country is located, because you can buy a ready-made tandoor stove both in a specialized store and on the Internet. If you arm yourself with certain knowledge about how to make a tandoor with your own hands, you can save money, and make the dimensions and design of your own free will.
Having a summer cottage or a private house with a yard and the ability to cook in the fresh air, it is difficult to resist, so as not to fry the barbecue or meat.
But you can use a barbecue for this? Of course, this is also true, but the tandoor, built with its own hands from brick, can replace not only the barbecue and barbecue, but also become a full-fledged oven in which you can cook pita bread, and the tandoor cake will have a special taste and aroma. This effect is achieved due to the simple design of the tandoor and the materials from which it is made.
Types of furnace
Before you start creating an oriental furnace in your yard, you need to determine its type. At the location of the tandoor are:
- installed in a pit;
- mounted at ground or floor level.
Other types of tandoor are distinguished:
- Turkish - are built of refractory bricks; these are furnaces with a special design and an internal ceramic surface. Thanks to the materials and shape, the temperature in the furnace reaches the required value. The distribution of heat occurs evenly, and this is what makes the tandoor meat juicy and tasty, and oriental cakes - aromatic.
- Uzbek - they differ in that they look more like a clay jug installed upside down, while the base is treated with brickwork, and the resulting gap between the tandoor wall and the masonry is filled with sand or salt, there is also a hole for the blower. In the Uzbek tandoor, for the convenience of frying kebabs, they use a special grill, which can also be used to prepare other products. Bread from such an oven is known to all as Uzbek lavash.
Having decided on the type of furnace, you can go to its construction. If it will be built of brick, it is necessary to divide the whole process into stages and step by step follow them:
- First of all, you need to arm yourself with drawings;
- the choice of a place for construction is no less important, because a convenient location can become a place of attraction during cooking outdoors;
- preparation of the chosen place, materials and tools for construction;
- direct creation of a tandoor furnace and its design.
If you make a tandoor with your own hands, drawings should always be at hand. Previously, the drawing must be drawn or printed on paper so that you can always consult it.
Materials and Tools
As materials are best suited:
- stove or fireclay bricks;
- cement and expanded clay;
- metal wires or rings;
- sand, refined clay, salt and water for the manufacture of a solution or a ready-made fireclay mixture;
During construction, you may need tools such as:
- buckets or containers for mortar;
- trowel and putty knife;
- building level;
- wooden bars and a piece of crate.
Homemade brick tandoor must be installed on the foundation.
It is necessary to build a pit with a depth of 10 cm and an area of 1 square. m, preferably round, and cover it with sand, which will serve as a pillow that holds heat. At the next stage, the pillow is covered with a net, that is, reinforced, for added strength and poured with concrete to a height of 5 cm above the surface. The flooded base should be smooth - use the building level for inspection - and stand for at least a week in order to get stronger as much as possible.
The tandoor has a round shape, and in order to do it correctly, it is necessary to mark the outline of the base on the foundation. Given the standard dimensions of the furnace, the ratio of the neck to the base is 1 to 3, it is necessary to make a template, for which wooden blocks and a piece of lathing one and a half meters high are suitable. The standard base is 100 cm in diameter. The prepared template must be installed in the center of the intended circle, and the laying of bricks should begin along the contour.
When building a tandoor from brick, preference should be given to that material that has high refractory properties. The stove brick or fireclay brick is best suited, as it also has resistance to temperature extremes. Before proceeding with the masonry, it is necessary to equip a blower, this is important not only to maintain fire and temperature, but also to clean the tandoor from coal. For a blower, an asbestos pipe of small diameter or a finished arch of the appropriate material is suitable.
The construction of walls begins with laying the first row of bricks on a short edge in a circle. For laying the remaining rows, it is necessary to use a solution consisting of purified clay, sand, water and salt. The mixture must be kneaded to such a state that a circle can be rolled out of it, which does not crumble upon falling, but is flattened, forming cracks on the surface. If self-mixing the mortar is too difficult, you can use the already prepared chamotte mixture. The walls are laid according to the same principle as the first row, with tying with wire, this will give additional strength to the entire structure.
Depending on the desired height, the shape of the jug can be formed either from the third row or from the second, remembering that the neck should narrow. When laying, it is very important that the bricks are as tight as possible to one another on the inside, and all the gaps between the bricks, both inside and outside, are filled with mortar. Do not forget to monitor the level of the walls of the furnace and adjust it as necessary. In order for the adhesion between the materials to be as good as possible, the brick must be moistened.
Note that if building material is poured with water for several hours, and then allowed to dry, there will be no need to be distracted by wetting the bricks. Dry brick absorbs moisture from the solution, impairing its ductility. After the walls are ready and the whole structure has dried out well, you can proceed to the stage of internal and external decoration.
In order for the finished tandoor to retain heat well, it needs to be modified. To do this, add sheep wool to the mixture for plaster, which includes clay and quartz sand or chamotte mortar and thickly coat the walls, the thickness should be from 2 to 10 centimeters. The neck also needs to be plastered, giving it a rounded shape. To your taste, the walls can be laid out with stone or other decorative material.
On the inside, for additional insulation, you can use a mixture of cement and expanded clay 1: 1. Before doing this, you need to prepare a sheet of roofing material, corresponding to the shape of the tandoor and its height, but smaller in diameter, and install it, for reliable fixation, you can put stones or bricks inside and then pour the mixture.
After drying, roofing material and stones can be removed from the tandoor and correct irregularities with a spatula. For the finished tandoor, you can separately order a beautiful top plate and a metal cover of the appropriate size, as well as additional devices in the form of rings, gratings and skewers.
Drying and firing
Drying the finished tandoor will take at least two weeks. After the plaster has fully set and insulated, during this entire period, the tandoor needs to be heated. The first material for the furnace should be paper or wood shavings. Combustible material must be laid gradually, bringing the temperature of the walls to a warm state in small volumes. This procedure should be performed daily for 14 days.
After such heating and drying, you can proceed to the firing of the walls. To do this, they lay firewood at 1/4 of the height, as they turn into coals, the amount is brought to 2/3 of the height. When all the wood has burned out, it is necessary to close it with a lid until it cools completely. After all the procedures, the ash formed can be removed and the outer walls treated with a soft brush, and the tandoor will be ready for use.
A properly arranged brick tandoor will delight its owner for many years. Its device and principle of operation allow the heat to reach temperatures up to 400 degrees Celsius. After the first kindling, the walls of this furnace can hold heat for up to 6 hours. This makes it possible to prepare several servings of one dish or to diversify their list.
The oven is suitable for use at any time of the year.. True, it must be remembered that to prepare bread it needs to be cleaned of soot, and during frying, remove coals so that the dough is not saturated with smoke - such bread is also called tandoor. On the contrary, when cooking meat or vegetables, the smell of smoke will be a pleasant addition to the great taste. The design of the tandoor is such that the heat in it is distributed evenly throughout the entire volume of the furnace, and no matter what is cooked here, it will be fried evenly and to the desired state.
Do-it-yourself homemade tandoor cannot be compared to any other. Such a stove will cost much cheaper than a purchased one, but if you can’t fully trust in your strength, you can always consult a specialist, do not neglect the advice of knowledgeable people. In any case, information can always be found on the Internet.
If there is absolutely no talent for construction, there is no time, or if the place for construction is limited, a portable tandoor was invented in the East. It has all the properties of a stationary furnace built of brick, although it is lighter, made of clay and mounted on special metal legs or wheels. Its appearance can be chosen according to your own taste.