We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
More and more Russians are growing grapevines in their summer cottages. And not only in the southern regions, but far beyond its borders. Today, the central regions, the Urals and Siberia are becoming the viticulture zone.
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to avoid mistakes. This also applies to planting grapes in autumn with seedlings. After all, it is not only a matter of adhering to agricultural technology, but also of creating conditions for rooting and survival in the cold winter. We will try to tell and show an interesting video about how to plant grape seedlings in central Russia in the fall.
Why autumn plantings are better
Despite the fact that rooting seedlings in the fall is a risky undertaking, it is still better to do work on planting grapevines during this period:
- Economic benefit. In the fall, planting material is much cheaper than in the spring.
- There is no need to select a storage location for grape seedlings. Having bought seedlings, knowing the planting rules, you can immediately plant the plants in a permanent place.
- Development of immunity. Autumn plantings, due to extreme conditions, are better hardened, therefore, they become frost-resistant.
- Growing faster. After the snow melts and the seedlings are open, they have enough nutrients, planted in the fall. Therefore, the development of the vineyard is in full swing.
Attention! In the spring, care must be taken that frosts do not damage young grape plants.
The best varieties for autumn planting
Before talking about how to plant grapes in the fall, you need to figure out first what varieties are suitable for this in a particular region. After all, choosing the right seedlings is half the battle. A mistake can lead to the death of the vineyard.
- Early grape varieties with ripening periods of up to 100 days. They are suitable for the northern regions.
- Mid-season grapes are best grown in the middle lane.
- Late ripening varieties are planted in the south.
Important! In a word, before planting grapes in the fall, in order to receive a decent harvest in subsequent years, you need to decide on the variety, based on the region of residence.
The photo shows the most popular grape varieties with different ripening periods.
Another choice is to be made by newly minted winegrowers. The grapes are divided into table and technical varieties. Table varieties are consumed fresh. The berries are juicy with large berries. Technical grapes with a sour taste are intended for further processing.
From the foregoing, we can conclude that for central Russia it is better to choose early ripening grape varieties so that it has time to give off the harvest in a short summer.
Choosing a place
After you decide on the choice of the variety, you need to think about where the grape seedlings will grow. Site selection is another important factor affecting harvesting.
What you need to pay attention to:
- You cannot call grapes a whimsical plant. It bears fruit on any soil. However, saline soil is completely unsuitable for him. The more sun the vineyard receives, the juicier and brighter the ripening grapes will be.
- It is advisable to plant plants on the southern or southeastern side of the site, next to the fence or wall of the house. In this case, long-term lighting is provided during the day, and at night the fence or walls of the house will give the vineyard the heat accumulated during the day.
- Planting is arranged from north to south so that the vine gets enough warmth and light.
- The root system of overgrown grapes needs a lot of space. Therefore, the correct planting scheme must be observed: seedlings in a row are planted at a distance of 2 or 3 meters (depending on the variety), and row spacing from 2.5 to 3 meters.
Important! As experienced gardeners say, grapes like high and sunny, dry but not arid places.
Preparing planting material
Two days before the scheduled work, we lower the grape seedling with buds and eyes in chilled boiled water. This procedure will nourish the plant with the necessary moisture.
Advice! It is not recommended to add growth stimulants or any fertilizers to the water, so as not to harm the plant.
The tips of the roots on the seedlings are trimmed. We immediately check if the material is ready for planting. The cut should be white and the vines should be bright green.
This pruning stimulates the growth of the root system. Thin white roots are formed near the place of the cuts.
Experienced gardeners are advised to prepare a pit for the autumn planting of grape seedlings in advance, so that the soil settles well. Then the soil will not pull the root system down, and the neck will remain on the surface. As a rule, they dig a hole in the spring. But if the conditions did not allow, then three weeks before planting the grapes, the pit should be ready.
When digging, the top layer is laid out separately, then it is poured back into the pit. As a rule, the depression should be large and spacious, because the root system of the grapes grows both in width and depth. According to the standard, the pit should be 80x80 cm.
The bottom is covered with drainage, humus and fertilizers are poured on top. In total you will need:
- humus - 3 buckets;
- nitroammophoska - 0.5 kg;
- charcoal - 1 l.
Everything mixes well. Such a nutritious pillow will last for grape seedlings until next fall. Then the earth taken out of the pit is poured.
Important! It is forbidden to put a seedling directly on black soil, this can lead to the combustion of the grape root system.
Spill water, and watering should be abundant. In total, you will have to fill in a total of at least four buckets.
How to install the support
For the vineyard, in whatever region the seedlings are planted, including in the middle lane, it is necessary to install a support under each vine already during the planting period. When you have decided on the place for planting grapes, you need to drive wooden stakes into each row (at least three meters in height) at a distance of 2.5 meters. The supports are reliably deepened by 60 centimeters. Then the wire is pulled. The first row at a distance of 40 cm from the ground, all the rest with a step of 30 cm from each other. This is the future trellis for securing the vine.
The question of how to properly plant young grape plants is not idle. It depends on him whether the plant survives or dies. Let's take everything in order:
- In the middle of the pit, fertile soil is poured with a mound. It should be 10 centimeters below the pit sides. A seedling is "planted" on it. Its roots are pre-dipped in a clay mash.
- Place the seedling with an eye to the south and in the direction of the future trellis. The roots are spread around the mound and slightly covered with earth. It is more convenient to work with two people to keep the seedling in the chosen position. The entire root system should point straight down.
- Gently sprinkle with soil, which is compacted to improve the adhesion of the roots to the ground. In addition, there will be no air cushion between the spines. It can damage the root system and slow down its proper development. This, in turn, will adversely affect the preparation of the grape seedling for wintering.
- And again they fill the hole with water. When it is absorbed, the pit is filled with earth, and mulch is sprinkled on top.
- After the bush is planted, it is closed with a cut plastic bottle until it is completely rooted. She is pressed tightly to the ground. The plant needs free air access, so a slot is made in the bottle.
In the future, the seedling must be watered. Although the nature itself "cares" about autumn plantings most often: there is enough precipitation.
A video filmed by a gardener on the correct planting of grapes in the fall:
Novice gardeners are also interested in the question of when grape seedlings are planted in autumn in central Russia. As a rule, work is carried out 3-4 weeks before the first frost, so that the young plant has time to take root and prepare for wintering. But planting care of seedlings is not limited. After all, the main task is to get healthy fruit-bearing grapes. Therefore, you will have to take care of the shelter of the seedlings for the winter.
Shelter from winter frost
In central Russia, frosts begin in mid-October. By this time, the grapes have already been planted and began to take root. Winter frosts can nullify all your work if you do not take care of a reliable shelter of the vineyard. First-year plants and newly planted grape bushes especially need shelter.
Grape seedlings should be prepared for wintering immediately after the autumn planting. The plastic bottle, which we have already mentioned, cannot be removed from the grape seedling. A layer of soil is poured on top of at least 25 cm.
There are other ways to hide as well. For example, covering plants with spruce branches, installing a mini-greenhouse over newly planted plants, boxes. In the presence of a large amount of snow, the vineyard receives natural insulation.
Attention! Whatever method of sheltering the seedlings after planting in the fall is chosen, there should be an air cushion between the ground and the plant.
When to plant grape seedlings (in autumn or spring) - each gardener decides on an individual basis, depending on the availability of seedlings, place of residence and climatic conditions. Although I would like to note that the autumn planting of grapes, subject to all the rules, will provide vegetative growth and development of the bush with the first spring rays of the sun.