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More than 20,000 bee breeds are distributed around the globe, but only 25 of them are honeybees. In Russia, Central Russian, Ukrainian steppe, yellow and gray mountain Caucasian, Carpathian, Italian, Karnika, Buckfast, Far Eastern bee breeds are bred in Russia. Each of them has characteristic, inherent only to her, features and is adapted to certain climatic conditions. The result of honey harvests, health and growth of the bee colony, and a decrease in production costs depend on the correct choice of the breed in a given area. Karnika is a popular variety in Europe with many positive qualities. The disadvantages of karnik bees are insignificant and do not detract from their merits.
Karnika bee in the photo:
Description of the Karnika bee breed
The Karnik or Krainka bee breed (Apismelliferacarnica Pollm) was bred at the end of the 19th century in the historical region of Slovenia - Extreme, by crossing the Cypriot drone and the Italian bee. Distributed in Eastern and Western Europe, popular in Russia. Within the breed, several main strains are distinguished - Troisek, Sklenar, Peshetz, Serbian, Polish, Nizhneavstriyskaya, Hollesberg.
With some minor differences, they have characteristic features:
- large - weighing from 100 to 230 mg;
- in color, silvery-gray, thick-haired;
- the abdomen is pointed, the chitinous cover is dark;
- the dorsal half-rings show signs of light-colored rims;
- a large number of holds on the rear wing;
- proboscis 6-7 mm long;
Some varieties have yellow stripes on the first 2-3 tergites. The color of the chitinous cover can also vary - be black, dark brown.
Description of the karnika bee
Carnica queens are almost twice the size of worker bees: a barren queen weighs 180 mg, a fetal queen - 250 mg. The abdomen is less shaggy, the color is dark brown with light brown stripes. The wings are almost half as long as the body. The daily egg production is 1400-1200 pieces. total weight 350 mg.
Describing in reviews the experience of breeding karnik bees, beekeepers argue that they are replaced quietly, without war, the temporary coexistence of two queens is permissible. The colony usually lays 2 queen cells, this amount is enough for productive reproduction. At a temperature of + 5 ° C, the uterus of carnica bees can begin worming even in winter. The fertility of the karnik queen has a positive effect on the early spring honey harvest - the family is completely ready for it and has gained strength.
Attention! In autumn, worming stops late, in November, when daytime temperatures remain at zero for 3 days.
How Karnika bees behave
They are distinguished by their calm and peaceful nature. The beekeeper can calmly inspect the nest - the bees do not show aggression, the queen continues to lay eggs, insects remain on the frame. They are hardworking. They have a developed sense of smell, orientation in space. They are prone to attack, but they protect their hive from thief bees well. Royivny, in the absence of a bribe, this property is enhanced - the beekeeper needs to take preventive measures. For this reason, they are not suitable for nomadic apiaries.
They are adapted to flying in mountainous areas, they can collect honey at an altitude of 1500 m. Cloudy and cool weather is not an obstacle to flying out of the nest. With the onset of the main honey flow, brood rearing is limited. Excellent builders - they begin to form honeycombs from early spring, even with a weak flow. Honey is put first in the brood part of the hive, then in the store. The honey seal is white and dry; in the construction of honeycombs, karnik bees practically do not use propolis. For insects, hives with a vertical nesting extension are needed. Self-cleaning the hive of wax moth and varroa mite.
How wintering is carried
They begin to prepare for wintering early, at the end of the main summer flow. With a lack of pollen, clutching and brood rearing are limited. They hibernate in small families, consuming food sparingly. They do not require special conditions - they live in a hive with a wall thickness of 3.5-4 cm and with a regular frame. By the spring they come strong, with a minimum amount of dead weather, with clean nests, and rapidly expand their families. The bee is characterized by high endurance and winter hardiness. If the frost is harder - 20 ˚С, the hives need to be insulated. Feed should be stocked 20-25 kg before the first nectar flights.
Carnica bees are highly immune to most diseases, genetically resistant to deadly toxicosis. In the case of a cold, long winter, insects are susceptible to noseemotosis. They are not susceptible to acarapidosis and paralysis. Brood and queen bee also rarely get sick.
Recommended breeding regions
Krainki are popular with beekeepers in Central Europe, Austria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany and Switzerland. Karnika bees are adapted to live in regions with cold winters, short springs and hot summers.
Attention! Initially, the breed became widespread in Europe, but due to its high adaptability to climatic conditions, it feels great in central Russia, it is successfully cultivated in Siberia, the Urals, Altai.
Karnika bees are hardworking and capable of working on any kind of bribe. Due to the long proboscis, they are able to collect nectar with low sugar content. Easily find the best nectar source and switch to it. Works well on red clover. Honey productivity is 1.5 times higher than that of other breeds. Early honey harvest is better than other breeds. In good weather conditions, the initial productivity is in the range of 30 kg / ha. In the course of research, it was noticed that the krainks collect honey worse in places where the food supply is represented only by wild plants. They fly to work 20-30 minutes earlier than other species. They are good in areas where winter rapeseed and clover are grown - they provide high-quality early honey harvest. Collect nectar and pollen from fruit bushes and trees and pollinate them.
Attention! The Krajinskaya bee must be protected from crossing with other breeds. Transmission of traits is only possible with purebred breeding.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
The popularity of the Carnica bee breed ensures its calmness and lack of irritability. The benefits also include the following factors:
- high honey productivity;
- exceptional hard work;
- economy in feed consumption;
- weather changes do not affect performance;
- the honeycomb is always white and clean;
- easily transfers transportation;
- good adaptability;
- high fertility;
- fast brood development;
- good coordination;
- strong immunity;
- produce a large amount of royal jelly;
- high wax production.
Some disadvantages are inherent in the Karnika breed:
- swarming with weak honey collection;
- karnik bees practically do not produce propolis;
- genetic instability;
- restriction of the uterus in worming;
- the brood fills several frames randomly, which creates inconveniences for the beekeeper;
- high price;
- late worming in warm autumn, which leads to wear and tear of bees and overconsumption of feed.
Having tried to work with bees of the Karnika breed, beekeepers willingly master its breeding.
Karnik bees are characterized by intensive spring development, they quickly build up the strength of families and work on early honey plants. In case of recurrent spring cold snap, the rate of brood rearing is not reduced, using even scarce sources of nectar and pollen. For this, they fly out of the hive even at a temperature of + 10 ˚С.
The family loses many adult flight bees, soon they are replaced by a sufficient number of young individuals. In the event of a harsh and long winter, reproduction may start late, and by the beginning of the main honey harvest, the swarm strength will be low. If pollen ceases to flow to the uterus, it ceases to engage in brood. For its correct and healthy development, the temperature in the hive should be within + 32-35 ˚С.
In reviews of karnik bees, beekeepers point to their unpretentiousness and low purchase and maintenance costs, which more than pay off in a short time.
Bee packages with the Karnika family are purchased in special stores. The kit includes:
- 3 frames given with larvae and 1 cover frame;
- family of karnik bees;
- a queen bee under the age of 1 year with a mark on the back;
- food - kandy cake weighing 1.5 kg;
- water with a special insect-friendly drinking device;
In March-May, karnik bee colonies develop rapidly, the highest peak is June-July. They create large families, the nest can take up to 3-4 buildings.
Before you get your hands on karnica bees, you need to find out which strain is best for your region. Some are good for spring early bribe, others - for summer. The productivity of the family will increase significantly if the Krajina uterus is kept together with drones of the Italian breed. The apiary can be kept both on flat and relief terrain. Periodically, you need to invite a veterinarian to examine the insects. They are suitable for nomadic apiaries - they easily get used to a new place and do not fly into other people's hives.
It is important to provide the bees with water to conserve their strength. In hot weather, the ventilation holes in the hive must be opened. For productive beekeeping, karnik strains require maintaining the purity of the breed; when crossed with other species (even intra-breed strains), they lead to a loss of breeding qualities.
Comparison of several breeds
When choosing a breed of bees for a given area, the beekeeper needs to take into account many factors - adaptability to climatic conditions, fertility of queens, immunity, malice, swagger. Each breed prefers a certain range of plants for honey collection - this must be taken into account when analyzing the honey plants growing around. The Central Russian bee endures a long, harsh winter best of all, but is aggressive, effective on a plentiful short flow. It is focused on one type of flowering plants - most of all it is intended for the production of monofloral honey. Caucasian bees, on the contrary, easily switch from one honey plant to another and work well on weak bribes.
Which is better: Karnika or Karpatka
Beekeepers cannot decide which of the two is better. While many of the characteristics are similar, karnik bees exhibit a number of advantages:
- higher productivity;
- work at low temperatures and during heat waves, in cloudy weather and even during light rain;
- protect the hive from wax moths, keep it clean;
- when carrying out the necessary measures, they easily get out of the swarm state;
Certain lines of the karnik bee breed have a hard time overwintering, come out of it very weakened, develop poorly, work slowly, in which they are inferior to Carpathians. Living 5-6 years in one place, krainks can become extremely swarm. Carpathians are more prone to theft, do not pay attention to the wax moth. If a family has begun to swarm, it is very difficult to bring it into working condition.
Which is better: Karnika or Buckfast
Buckfast is also characterized by high honey productivity, good immunity, economy and cleanliness. Not aggressive and not swaggering. Karniki are inferior in frost resistance, fly over begins with the onset of heat, but they work better in wet weather. The queen fills the combs with brood in a continuous order, does not move to other frames, until one is completely filled. Buckfast bees, like karnica, need to expand the nest during reproduction. It is convenient for the beekeeper to work with them - honey is placed at the top of the nest or on the side. When choosing between Buckfast or Karnika breeds, one should take into account the climatic conditions and the economic factor - the former are more expensive.
The disadvantages of karnik bees are recognized in comparison with other breeds in similar conditions. Weaknesses of the breed can be partially controlled (swarming, genetic instability), otherwise beekeepers accept them and adapt. Positive assessments prevail in reviews and comments about karnik bees; honey productivity, endurance, high immunity, calmness and friendliness come to the fore.
Reviews of beekeepers about karnik bees
Bessonov Mikhail, 46 years old, Kazan
Karnika are good bees. They are easy to control and peaceful, neighbors and children are not afraid of their attack. I calmly move the apiary from place to place, the bees quickly find suitable honey plants and are well oriented in space. They constantly clean the hives, drive out moths and ticks. They do not vilify honeydew honey, this is important given its high content in winter fodder reserves. I think that beginners need to start working with this particular breed.
Popov Igor, 49 years old, Rostov
For many years he kept a Central Russian breed, decided to try to work with the Krajina bee (Troyzek 1075). Immediately struck by the contrast of characters. Very calm, fit well on the frame. During intensive flow, they tend to restrict uterine cervix, which weakens families to the main honey harvest. Good for early and late spring bribes. They do not get sick, do not wander in other people's combs, do not allow other people's bees to steal honey and expel parasites themselves. So far, I see only pluses.