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Peppers love light, warmth, and "eat". The culture is quite capricious, requiring a lot of attention, however, this fact does not stop our Russian gardeners. For a long time and with great success, many have grown peppers on their site.
It all starts with growing seedlings, since pepper is a crop with a long growing season. And in central Russia and in the northern regions of Siberia, there is not enough time to get the harvest. With proper care: regular watering, loosening, weeding and feeding, getting a decent harvest is guaranteed to be possible.
Experienced gardeners have long come to the conclusion that it is impossible to get the fruits of pepper without dressing. Peppers love light loams and sandy loams. The peculiarity of these soils is that they are poor in mineral elements. Therefore, in order for the plants to grow actively and bear fruit vigorously, they need additional feeding. Each plant removes up to 50 macro- and microelements from the soil during the growing season.
In order for the peppers to develop with dignity and form fruits during the growing season, and not to drag out a miserable existence, gardeners need to make additional nutrition in the form of root and foliar dressings.
Foliar dressing of pepper is one of the methods of fertilizing by spraying the ground part of the plants. That is, plants receive and assimilate trace elements through the leaves and stems. Foliar application of fertilizers can be regarded as a one-time, temporary or special phenomenon. An event is held in the following cases:
- Too high or too low soil temperature, at which the absorption of nutrition by the roots is difficult;
- High moisture and density of the soil;
- With increased acidity, the roots cannot assimilate the form of phosphorus, calcium, potassium inaccessible to them, and nitrogen nutrition is disturbed in soils with a high level of acidity;
- During flowering or when replanting, when the peppers are especially in need of additional nutrition.
Foliar dressing is often underestimated by gardeners. Or they are considered as a preventive measure during a period of stress: during transplantation, when the temperature drops, when there is a threat of disease.
However, the use of foliar top dressing of pepper has undeniable advantages:
- The stem thickens in time and the deciduous mass grows;
- Peduncles and ovaries are abundantly formed;
- Fruits are actively ripening with foliar spraying;
- Nutrients are quickly absorbed by the plant;
- Plants tolerate transplantation and natural disasters without damage;
- When using foliar dressing, fertilizers are saved and their efficiency increased.
Advice! The concentration of the fertilizers used in the solution for foliar feeding of peppers should be higher than for root feeding.
The same concentration can be used, but the effect will be much lower. But if you exceed the permissible concentration of the solution for foliar feeding, you can cause a burn on the leaves. This circumstance refers to the disadvantages of using the foliar method.
On large farms, agronomists calculate the required rates. Ordinary gardeners should carefully read the instructions that manufacturers attach to fertilizers for foliar spraying.
It should be borne in mind that the maximum benefit from foliar dressing of pepper will be subject to the conditions for their introduction:
- Early hours or evening after 17 hours. At such a time, there is no direct sunlight, which gives the plants time to absorb foliar feeding;
- The stomata on the leaves of the pepper are open;
- The temperature for better absorption of fertilizers should be no more than + 22 degrees.
- Microelements are well absorbed in cloudy weather. In the rain, foliar dressing is washed off.
Advice! When foliar top dressing, spray not only the upper surface of the leaves, but also the inner one.
On the inside, the leaves have a porous structure, so they absorb all trace elements much better.
To carry out foliar feeding of pepper, you will need: water, fertilizers, sprayer. If you are fertilizing seedlings, a small spray bottle will suffice. If you have to process large areas of pepper planting using the foliar method, then you will need a roomy sprayer.
After adjusting for weather conditions, time of day, prepare a fertilizer solution, based on the instructions. Pour the solution into a sprayer and treat the plants, remembering the underside of the leaves. The liquid should cover the leaves in moderation without dripping.
Advice! It is best to have a reference plant by which you can judge the quality of your spray application.
Moreover, peppers react very quickly to foliar feeding. After one or two hours, the result will already be visible.
For foliar feeding, the following fertilizers are used:
- Potassium sulfate (solution 1%);
- Superphosphate (2% solution). Since the fertilizer is poorly soluble in water, the solution must be infused for a day or dissolved with boiling water, then the time will be reduced to 10-15 minutes;
- Urea (solution 2%);
- Organic fertilizers: infusion of weeds or nettles. Plants are placed in a container with water and infused for at least a week. Then the liquid is filtered so as not to clog the spray, make a solution (1:10) and spray the plants.
Foliar feeding of pepper is very effective, but it has not found wide application among ordinary gardeners due to the fact that it must be carried out quite often, every 1-2 weeks, the process is laborious and time-consuming, requires the purchase of special expensive equipment in the form of a sprayer, as well as knowledge on the calculation of fertilizers.
External manifestations from a lack of batteries
What kind of fertilizer to choose for foliar feeding of pepper, visual observation of the plants will help. The lack of any useful element in the diet is reflected in the appearance of sweet pepper:
- Lack of nitrogen is most often found on sandy loams and loams, which peppers love so much. External signs suggesting a lack of nitrogen: peppers have a thin stem, few shoots and poor foliage of a light green color. Very few inflorescences are formed. Symptoms of nitrogen deficiency appear at any stage of plant development, but they are especially noticeable during the initial stage of growth. The problem is solved by introducing organic matter, urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium or sodium nitrate and others;
- Phosphorus stimulates fruit production. Lack of phosphorus leads to a decrease in yield, as few flowers and ovaries are formed. The external manifestations of the lack of an element include the presence of bluish and purple shades in the color of the leaves. Plants are lagging behind in development, have an unhealthy appearance. The leaves dry up and die off, while having a dark color. Lack of phosphorus is eliminated by foliar application of superphosphate and potassium phosphate, or a solution of poultry droppings;
- With a lack of iron, pepper leaves are affected by a disease such as chlorosis, when the leaf plate turns yellow, and the veins remain green. Increased acidity of the soil can lead to chlorosis. Foliar dressing of pepper with iron-containing preparations (Ferrovit, Micro-Fe) quickly eliminates the problem. Folk way: stick a few nails into the soil;
- With a lack of magnesium, chlorosis also develops, the leaf plate becomes reddish. Or the leaves, starting from the edge, dry out and wrap up. Treatment: feeding the pepper with magnesium sulfate or ash. It can be applied both by the foliar method and by the root;
- Lack of copper leads to a delay in the growth of pepper, the upper bud dies off, and white spots appear on the leaves. The introduction of copper sulfate or superphosphate with copper will bring the plants back to life;
- Boron protects plants from viruses and fungal infections. With a shortage of boron, flowers and ovaries fall off, the leaves are lightened and curled. Foliar top dressing of pepper with a boric acid solution acts as a prophylactic, enhances the defenses of the plant;
- A lack of potassium can be seen if the leaves of the plant begin to dry out from the edge, the buds and ovaries fall off. Lateral shoots develop poorly or grow curved. The introduction of ash, potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium will compensate for the lack of potassium;
- Calcium promotes the assimilation of other elements: nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium. Outwardly, a lack of calcium manifests itself in the fact that the pepper leaves become smaller, bent, curl, brown spots appear on them. Chalk, dolomite flour, slaked lime are all fertilizers that increase the calcium content of the soil.
The most common problems in the care of peppers in the form of a lack of nutrients should be solved in a complex and from the very beginning of plant growth.
Pepper root dressing
Conventional root dressing of bell pepper is better mastered by our gardeners and is widely used in practice. Pepper feeding begins at the seedling stage. At first, the seedlings have enough trace elements that are in the soil. To get healthy, strong seedlings, you should feed them for the first time one and a half to two weeks after the shoots appear. Complex fertilizers or compound fertilizers are suitable for seedlings:
Repeat after 1.5 weeks. You can also use potassium monophosphate (1 tsp. Per liter of water).
For pepper seedlings, it is best to carry out foliar dressing. Microfertilizers: "Orton Micro-Fe", "Ideal", "Aquadon-micro" are produced in a convenient liquid form and contain most of the necessary microelements. Foliar spraying increases the resistance of plants to various diseases, especially the black leg, which pepper seedlings are prone to when planting thicken before picking.
When the plants grow up to 20 cm, they will have 8 true leaves, and buds will appear, they will be ready to be transplanted into the ground. It is not recommended to use pepper fertilizer for the first two weeks. But as soon as the peppers bloom, the next feeding is required, since it is at the flowering stage that the future harvest is laid.
The most successful feeding option at the flowering stage with slurry or infusion of bird droppings (1:10). Insist organics for at least a week.
If it is impossible to add organic matter, fertilize with superphosphate (40 g), ammonium nitrate (40 g) and potassium sulfate (20 g). The fertilizer mixture should be dissolved in 10 liters of water. Use 2 liters of the resulting solution per plant.
Peppers also respond positively to feeding with "herbal tea". Weeds are crushed (5 kg), placed in a barrel with 100 liters of water. Fermented for at least a week. Experienced gardeners add 200 g of ash and a bucket of manure to the infusion.
Advice! To prevent the unpleasant smell from the mixture from spreading over your area, cover the surface with straw or peat.
After 2 weeks, when the time comes for the formation of ovaries, carry out another feeding. Alternate fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers. Potassium is required for fruit setting. Add 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate, superphosphate and urea to a bucket of water (10 l), 20 g each. Pour the solution over each bush of pepper (1-2 l).
Some top dressing recipes are usually called folk, they have been tested by more than one generation of gardeners and give good results. It does not take much time to prepare such fertilizers.
Feeding with yeast
Baking yeast is a well-known product that consists of microscopic fungi. They contain the most useful amino acids, trace elements, organic iron. Fertilizers made from yeast stimulate the formation of the root system. Plants become more hardy, seedlings tolerate picking and replanting well. It takes less time to adapt. Yeast has proven itself well for foliar feeding of tomatoes and bell peppers. Feeding preparation is not difficult:
- A concentrated solution can be made, which must then be diluted. In this case, 200 g of live yeast are added to 1 liter of water, and then diluted in a bucket of water;
- If using dry yeast (10 g), add 2 tbsp. granulated sugar per 10 liters of water. It takes 1-2 hours for the yeast to activate. Before use, dilute the solution in a ratio of 1: 5;
- In "herbal tea" (infusion of herbs for feeding) add 0.5 kg of yeast, leave for 24 hours.
Warning! Do not use a yeast dressing often, as it promotes abundant leaf growth. It is best to use fertilizer in a stressful situation.
During the growing season, 2 additional dressings are enough. Yeast fertilizers are a kind of growth stimulant for peppers and tomatoes.
Banana Skin Fertilizer
Fertilizers for tomatoes and peppers can be made from banana skins. For a volume of water of 5 liters, 6-7 pieces are required. Insist for 3 days. Banana peel infusion enriches plants with potassium.
Boric acid solution
Foliar fertilization of bell pepper by spraying with a weak solution of boric acid (2 g per 10 l of water). The method promotes fruit formation.
Ash infusion is used for fertilization. To do this, place half of the tbsp in a liter jar of water. ash. The mixture should be infused for a day. The resulting solution is suitable for foliar spraying of pepper after straining.
Take a shell of 5 eggs and cover with a liter of water. The mixture should stand for about 3 days. The appearance of turbidity and an unpleasant odor indicates the readiness of the solution.
Onion husk fertilizer
Place a couple of handfuls of onion husks in a liter container of water. The infusion is prepared within 5 days. After straining, you can fertilize the peppers. The infusion is also suitable for spraying plants for the prevention of diseases and when pests appear.
Growing peppers is also possible for a novice gardener. One has only to observe the correct agricultural techniques, including regular fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers. To use foliar top dressing of pepper or a well-known root, everyone determines for himself. Do not use fertilizers uncontrollably. Observe the dosage and schedule of their introduction. Only the correct feeding rates will allow you to grow healthy, strong plants that will consistently bear fruit.