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Despite the fact that apple and pear trees from time immemorial were considered the most common fruit trees in the middle lane, there were very few really reliable, tasty and fruitful varieties of pears, for example, for the conditions of the Moscow region until recently. Over the past few decades, the situation has changed dramatically and at the moment, gardeners have a lot to choose from. But there are still not so many so-called winter varieties, the fruits of which can be stored for more or less long time, over two months.
The choice for growing in the regions north of Lipetsk or Tambov is especially small, since it is the late varieties of pears that need a certain amount of heat and sun for good ripening of wood and the fruits themselves. In areas with short and cool summers, this amount may not be enough. Nevertheless, breeders have obtained varieties that ripen in September-October, and the fruits can survive until the New Year, and sometimes longer. One of these varieties is the Yakovlevskaya pear, a detailed description of the variety with photos and reviews of gardeners is presented in this article.
History of creation
At the end of the 90s of the twentieth century, a group of breeders of the State Scientific Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. Michurina, on the basis of crossing pear varieties Tolgarskaya Beauty and Daughter of Zarya, a whole line of hybrid varieties was obtained: Nika, Chudesnitsa, Fairy, Yakovlevskaya and others. After numerous trials, all of these fruit forms received the status of various pear varieties with somewhat similar, but still individual characteristics.
The following scientists took part in the breeding of the Yakovlevskaya pear variety: S.P. Yakovlev, V.V. Chivilev, N.I. Saveliev, A.P. Gribanovsky. In 2002, this variety was officially included in the State Register and zoned in the following areas:
Judging by the reviews of gardeners, the Yakovlevskaya pear has taken root well and gives excellent yields in more northern regions, such as Moscow, Yaroslavl and even Leningrad.
Description of the variety
Pear trees of the Yakovlevskaya variety can be classified as medium-sized. Mature trees can reach 10 meters in height, although a lot depends on the rootstock to which the graft is made. On average, a tree grows 25-30 cm in height and 15 cm in width per year. The crown has a fairly regular wide-pyramidal shape of medium density.
Shoots are glabrous, red-brown in color, of medium thickness, growing mostly straight. Medium-sized dark green leaves are elongated oval with a smooth surface and glossy sheen. Finely serrated serration is observed along the edges. The shape of the base of the leaf is obtuse, and the leaf blade itself is slightly curved upward.
There are numerous lentils. The kidneys are medium in size, folded back, smooth. Their shape is conical. The leaf petioles are medium both in length and in thickness. Stipules are subulate.
Attention! Fruiting can be called mixed, as it focuses on all types of fruit branches, without exception.
The cultivar is practically self-fertile, although for better fruit setting it is recommended to have a pear tree of any kind nearby, but with similar flowering times. In general, the presence of a pollinator for the Yakovlevskaya pear is not an end in itself, because in an amateur garden, even the harvest obtained from one adult pear without additional pollination will be enough for the whole family.
Pear Yakovlevskaya is traditionally distinguished by rather late periods of entry into fruiting. The first fruits from the moment of planting can be expected only after 5-6 years.
The variety officially belongs to the winter variety, although due to the fact that the harvest time on average falls on September-October, some call the Yakovlevskaya pear an autumn variety. Indeed, the so-called removable maturity of pears usually occurs in the second half of September. But often the fruit is allowed to pick up sweetness and hang until mid-October. In this case, the fruits have time to color and acquire additional juiciness.
A distinctive feature of the Yakovlevskaya variety is its ability to long-term storage. Under normal household conditions, pears can be stored until the New Year. If you create ideal storage conditions for them, with low temperature and humidity, then the shelf life can increase to 5-6 months.
The yield of the Yakovlevskaya pear is high. In industrial plantings, it averages 178 c / ha. In any case, at least 40-50 kg of fruit can be obtained from a ten-year-old tree.
In terms of winter hardiness, this variety is not at all in last place - it is above the average level of those varieties that are traditionally grown in Central Russia.
Important! Breeders conducted an experiment to artificially freeze trees during the winter, bringing the ambient temperature to -38 ° C. As a result, only 1.1 points of damage were recorded on the tissues of the cortex and cambium.
In addition, pears of this variety are distinguished by good resistance to fungal diseases, primarily to scab, the scourge of all pome crops, and entomosporia.
The fruits of the Yakovlevskaya pear are very beautiful - they have a fairly regular elongated classic pear-shaped shape. The size of pears is relatively large - the weight of one fruit can vary from 120 to 210 grams.
The skin is smooth, even, of medium thickness, slightly oily, has a small layer of waxy coating, which is intended to serve as protection against adverse environmental influences.
If at the moment of ripening the pears can have a rather uniformly green color, then at the stage of consumer maturity the skin turns yellowish. One part of the fruit, usually facing the sun, has a distinct reddish blush.
The stalks of average length and thickness have a curved shape. The funnel is narrow, shallow. The cup is half-open, non-falling. The saucer is wide, of medium depth. The heart is bulbous.
Seed chambers in fruits are closed, of medium size. Small seeds are conical and brown in color.
The pulp of the fruit is of medium density, juicy, creamy in color. Has a delicate semi-oily consistency with little granulation. The palatability of the fruit was rated at 4.5 points on a five-point scale.
According to its composition, the fruits of the Yakovlevskaya pear contain:
- The amount of sugars - 11.6%;
- Titrated acids - 0.4%;
- Dry matter - 12.8%;
- P-active substances - 148.0 mg / 100 g;
- Ascorbic acid - 10.1 mg / 100 g.
Pears of this variety, as already noted, can be stored well and for a long time, and can be transported over considerable distances.
The use of fruits is universal. As a rule, winter pears are valued primarily for keeping quality, which allows you to enjoy the taste of fresh fruit even in winter. But from the fruits of this variety, very tasty jam, jam, compote, marmalade and marshmallow are also obtained. It is suitable for drying, and even for making homemade wine.
Like many fruitful varieties, the Yakovlevskaya pear has one drawback - when the crown is thickened or when the yield is too abundant, crushing of the fruits can occur. Therefore, timely pruning and thinning of the crown is very important for trees, as well as rationing of ovaries after flowering is possible.
Most gardeners leave positive reviews about this pear variety. After all, there are few winter varieties of pears that would grow and bear fruit well in the middle lane. The only drawback is not the best taste of the fruit, but, as you know, taste is a very individual matter.
Elena, 35 years old, Lipetsk
I really like the Yakovlevskaya pear for its safety, it can last until the end of January. It is tasty and juicy, maybe a little harsh at first, but it's still a winter variety. Signs of scab can only appear in very rainy summers. For preventive purposes, I spray the tree in the spring before budding with a 3% Bordeaux mixture. I do this procedure in a year - protection is just enough for two seasons. I also noticed that this pear loves to drink. I made grooves along the trunk circle and water until the buds form and after flowering, five buckets per tree every other day. As a result, the yield increases by 30 percent. True, the pear begins to bear fruit rather late. It was only in the fifth year after planting that several inflorescences appeared. But on the sixth, the whole tree was already strewn with fruits. But this, as I understand it, is a feature of many pears.
Nikolay, 39 years old, Smolensk region
Several years ago I decided to plant a winter pear in my garden, because the children are growing up and they really like to feast on fresh fruits in winter. I chose between several Michurin varieties, in the end I settled on the Yakovlevskaya pear. I already have several summer varieties of pears and one autumn one growing in my garden - Memory of Yakovlev. I know that pears cannot tolerate locking of the root collar, so the resulting two-year-old seedling was planted on a small hill. Otherwise, everything was as usual. The pear quickly grew and by the third year it had several small inflorescences, from which nothing grew. In the fourth year, several fruits were already set. My family and I liked the taste, so we will expect a more bountiful harvest next year. There were no health problems in the pear.
Pear Yakovlevskaya will certainly delight you with juicy and tasty fruits that can last for a long time. You just need to show patience and wait for its fruiting, which comes relatively late.