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Probably, there is no winegrower who has not heard about the Moldova variety. This grape belongs to the oldest varieties, and in Russia it gained popularity only at the end of the last century. Moldova has a lot of strong qualities: it is not for nothing that the variety is considered one of the best table species and is successfully cultivated practically throughout the country. This is not to say that the grapes have huge clusters, and the berries are very large and have a non-standard taste, but Moldova consistently deserves high tasting marks and pleases with large yields, even with minimal care and unfavorable external factors.
Description of the Moldova grape variety, photos and reviews about it can be found in this article. There is also a list of the strengths and weaknesses of the variety, and also tells about how to properly grow table grapes Moldova.
The description of the Moldova grape variety should start with the history of its origin. As the name implies, the culture was bred in Moldova, for this they crossed two different species: Guzal Karu and Seiv Villar. In some literary sources, one can find the second name of Moldova - Codreanka Pozdnaya.
The variety was originally intended for regions with a mild and warm climate, therefore, the highest yield of grapes is shown in Moldova, in the south of Ukraine, in the Crimea, Krasnodar Territory and in the Rostov Region.
Important! It is quite possible to grow Moldova grapes in the central regions of Russia - the culture tolerates low temperatures well.
For more northern regions, the variety is not suitable, since it has a late ripening period (berries may remain green).
Characteristics of Moldova grapes:
- variety with medium and late ripening - the berries will become ripe in 155-160 days;
- grapes are considered table grapes, although the taste of the berries is not refined, but very pleasant - the taste characteristics of Moldova deserve an assessment of 8 points;
- the size of the bunches in the bulk is small, but there are also brushes weighing about a kilogram;
- the shape of the bunches is cylindro-conical, the filling is medium;
- the berries themselves are oval in shape, their average weight is 6 grams (that is, the grapes are quite large);
- the peel of Moldova grapes is dark purple, dense, covered with a well-visible waxy bloom;
- the pulp is tight, crunches when chewed, there are 2-3 seeds inside the grapes;
- the yield is very high - the Moldova grape variety gives about 140 kg of berries from each five-year-old bush;
- the sugar content in fruits is high - 19%, which allows them to be used for making wine and natural juice;
- the harvested crop can be stored for up to five months, it can also be processed, frozen, used for making preserves and jams;
- the bushes of Moldova are vigorous, already in the second or third year you can collect the first fruits;
- the leaves on the bushes are large, smooth, light green, slightly pubescent on the seamy side;
- about 70% of Moldova's runs are fruitful;
- each shoot allows, on average, 1.7 fruit clusters to ripen;
- grape inflorescences are bisexual, so Moldova does not need additional pollinators (other varieties);
- the variety has high resistance to various diseases and fungal infections;
- Moldova grapes are frost-resistant - without shelter, the wood can withstand temperatures down to -23 degrees;
- the variety is not demanding in care, it does not need complex agrotechnical techniques.
Attention! Freshly harvested berries from Moldova contain more acids than those that have been stored for a couple of weeks. Therefore, it is recommended to process the grapes some time after harvest.
Any grape is very healthy, because it is a source of many vitamins, minerals, fruit sugars and acids. Moldova is no exception, the fruits of this variety have a lot of calories and nutrients, they are full of antioxidants and useful vitamins.
Advantages and disadvantages
Moldovan grapes would not have become so popular if it did not have a lot of advantages. Of the strong qualities of the variety, it is worth mentioning:
- unpretentiousness of Moldova;
- high productivity;
- excellent taste characteristics;
- excellent presentation of fruits and their suitability for storage and transportation;
- resistance to most diseases;
- good resistance of grapes to low temperatures;
- the ability to quickly regenerate (recovery after pruning and mechanical damage to the vine);
- universal purpose of fruits.
Important! Another weighty argument in favor of the Moldova variety is the fact that wasps are practically not interested in the berries of this grape.
The peel of the berries is dense, they ripen late, therefore they are rarely affected by insects, they retain their presentation and integrity.
A vineyard who has decided to start Moldova in his garden should also know about some of the nuances. The first thing worth mentioning is that these grapes must be rationed: Moldova does not forgive either overloads or underloads. The second disadvantage of the variety is its weak resistance to such a dangerous disease as oidium - the bushes will have to be processed several times per season.
Attention! The ripe grape harvest in Moldova must be harvested in a timely manner. If the bunches are overexposed on the vine, they will become unsuitable for storage and transportation, and will quickly lose their presentation.
Description of Moldova grapes and photos of bunches, berries of this variety are very attractive: immediately there is a desire to plant several seedlings on your site. To achieve great results, the culture must be well cared for.
Advice! To take into account all the nuances, it is recommended to watch the video and carefully study the instructions below.
Agrotechnics during planting
The yield of grapes and the growth rate of bushes largely depend on how correctly the planting of Moldovan seedlings is carried out. The first thing a grower should pay attention to is the soil on the site. Moldova grapes prefers light and fertile soils that retain moisture and nutrients well.
An excess amount of moisture in the ground has a bad effect on the condition of the grapes: it rots, is affected by fungal infections, and lags behind in development. Winds and drafts have a bad effect on Moldova, this culture does not like shade and cold.
Considering all of the above, a place for seedlings of this grape is chosen according to the following criteria:
- the site should not be in the lowland;
- groundwater is deep (if not, you need to fill a hill of earth);
- the place is well lit by the sun and is located on the south side of the garden;
- seedlings from Moldova will be protected from wind and draft;
- the soil on the site is nutritious.
Important! It is equally important to choose good seedlings. The nursery must have an excellent reputation and the seedlings themselves must have a healthy root system and leaves with no signs of infection.
You can plant grapes in Moldova both in autumn and in spring. Most gardeners prefer to do this in the spring months, which will give the grapes plenty of time to mature and winter well. Those who decide to plant grapes in the fall should take care of shelter for the seedlings.
In any case, Moldovan seedlings cannot be planted in the ground at air temperatures below 15 degrees.
The bushes of this variety are very prone to overgrowth, therefore, sufficient spacing between plantings must be observed. Each bush of Moldova needs about 3-4 meters of space on either side. If the seedlings are planted too tightly, this will affect the quality and quantity of the fruit.
Directly planting seedlings of Moldova is carried out as follows:
- A hole is dug in advance with a diameter of about a meter and a depth of 90 cm.
- The bottom of the pit is covered with a generous layer of compost, interspersed with soil or humus.
- I fill the fertilizer with another layer of fertile soil.
- Place the seedling in the hole, gently spreading its roots.
- Sprinkle soil over the grapes, shaking the seedling slightly to compact the soil.
- Water the ground abundantly and cover it with mulch.
Attention! The root system of Moldova almost never gets sick, so you can graft seedlings on your own roots.
Do not forget about the high growth rate of grapes - for Moldova, you need to build an arch, trellis or other support in advance.
Moldova is not one of the capricious and demanding varieties, but these grapes also need minimal care. It is noticed that with due attention from the owner, the variety is capable of producing up to 150 quintals per hectare of vineyard.
You need to take care of the Moldova variety like this:
- Water the vineyard. For grapes from Moldova, sufficient soil moisture is extremely important, special attention should be paid to watering a week before the flowering of the vine and immediately after setting the berries. Any methods of irrigation are acceptable: from drip irrigation, to irrigation through canals and directly under the bush. If the weather is dry, the vineyard is additionally watered in the spring, immediately after the leaves bloom, and in the fall, when the entire crop has already been harvested. If there is too much moisture in the region, you need to take care of drainage.
- Mulch the soil within a radius of about 50 cm from the trunk. Mulch helps to retain moisture, prevents the roots from drying out, protects them from the hot sun. As mulch, rotting straw, sawdust, humus are suitable. The mulching layer should be about five centimeters.
- Preparing for winter. In the northern regions, Moldova needs to be covered for the winter. Given the strong growth of bushes, the method with metal vertical arches and a film is only suitable for young plants. Older grape bushes are tied and bent to the ground. After that, you can sprinkle the vine with earth, build a shelter of wood or slate, or use spruce branches.
- Trimming and loading. As mentioned above, Moldova must be standardized. The total load on the bush should not be more than 70 eyes, so 4-7 fruit buds are left on each shoot. When the clusters are formed, the normalization is repeated: cutting off all the brushes so that no more than two of them remain on each shoot. It is necessary to trim Moldova in spring and autumn, usually using the long sleeves method.
- Top dressing. You need to fertilize the vineyard 3-4 times per season. In spring, nitrogenous mineral dressings are used, in summer it is better to add preparations containing potassium and phosphorus. Organic matter spoils the taste of the grapes, so it is brought into the soil in the fall, after the harvest.
- Diseases and pests. Moldovan grapes are resistant to most diseases, they are not afraid of pests. But the variety is capable of being affected by powdery mildew, so it needs prevention. The bushes are sprayed several times per season using Bordeaux liquid or other means.
Attention! Diseases of Moldova grapes are extremely rare. If the seedlings were bought in a proven nursery, planted according to the rules, they have enough sun and heat, you can safely neglect the preventive treatments of the vine.
Review of the variety
We live in Ukraine, Moldova was planted in our country about twenty years ago. From the moment of planting, no one has fed the vineyard or processed the vine. They carried out only pruning and, as necessary, watering the bushes. Despite such meager care, grapes every year pleases with stable yields. It is noticed that the berries of Moldova are larger and sweeter if the summer is hot and sunny. Fruits can crack during the rainy season, but this is extremely rare. Excellent wine is obtained from Moldova, it is wonderful in freezing and in jam. Very unpretentious and persistent grapes.
Moldovan grapes are a great option for "lazy" summer residents and gardeners, and it is also great for industrial cultivation. The fruits of this variety are tasty fresh, suitable for any processing, can be stored and transported for a long time, have a good presentation. The variety does not need special care, so it is also suitable for novice winegrowers. All reviews about Moldova grapes are extremely positive.