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Warming a well from concrete rings is an important procedure, and sometimes even necessary. Ignoring the thermal insulation measures will lead to the fact that in winter you can be left without water supply. In addition, unfrozen communications will have to be restored, which will lead to additional costs.
Does the water freeze in the well
Previously, no one thought about insulating the heads installed on the water supply source. The constructions were made of wood. The material has excellent thermal insulation properties, due to which the water never freezes. Modern heads of water supply sources are made of concrete rings. Reinforced concrete structures are used for sewerage, wells, drainage wells are equipped from them. Concrete has a high thermal conductivity. The ring will freeze like the ground.
However, in order to find out whether it is necessary to insulate a concrete structure, two important factors are taken into account:
- the level of soil freezing;
- the level of the water mirror or utilities located in the mine.
The indicator of the level of soil freezing differs from region to region. For the south, this value is limited to 0.5 m. In the northern regions - from 1.5 m and more. The indicator for temperate latitudes ranges from 1 to 1.5 m. If the water mirror or the equipment installed in the mine for water supply is above the freezing level of the soil, then the water will freeze. Such a well needs to be insulated.
Advice! In the southern regions, it is enough to insulate the shaft cover with a simple wooden shield.
Do I need to insulate the well
Even if the well is used only in the summer in the country, it is considered a gross mistake to refuse to insulate it for the winter. Nothing will happen to a wooden structure, but a concrete structure will bring an unpleasant surprise.
The most common problems are:
- When the water supply from the well runs inside the mine, ice plugs will appear in the pipes at sub-zero temperatures. Expansion will break the pipeline. If pumping equipment is still installed, after the ice plug breaks off, it will be damaged.
- Freezing of water inside the well itself or in the soil adjacent to the rings forms a large expansion. Concrete structures are shifting. It turns out that the walls of the mine are depressurized.
- A similar problem occurs when water freezes between the seams of the rings. The joints collapse. Dirty water begins to seep into the mine from the side of the ground.
In the summer, all the problems that have arisen will have to be eliminated. In addition to high labor costs, repairs will cost the owner dearly.
Advice! If a water supply system is equipped with a concrete mine, the well ring and the pumping equipment located at the bottom of the pipeline are insulated.
How can you insulate a well from freezing
For thermal insulation of concrete rings, a material that does not absorb water is suitable. There is no benefit from loose insulation. It will do more harm.
The most suitable heaters are:
- Polyfoam is most often used to insulate wells. The popularity is due to low thermal conductivity and water absorption. Polyfoam is not expensive, easy to operate, resistant to deformation during ground movement. Ease of installation is a big plus. For concrete rings, a special shell is produced. The foam elements have a semicircular shape. To insulate the mine, it is enough to glue them on the concrete surface of the rings, fix them with umbrella dowels, wrap the entire structure with waterproofing material. When the insulation of the well for the winter with your own hands is completed, the pit around the rings is covered with soil.
Important! Polyfoam has a huge disadvantage. The material is damaged by rodents, equipped for the winter in a nest insulation.
- Extruded polystyrene foam is analogous to foam, but has better characteristics. The material is characterized by lower thermal conductivity, resistance to heavy loads. Expanded polystyrene is ideal for insulating concrete structures, but at a cost it is more expensive than foam. Thermal insulation is produced in slabs. It is optimal to use a material 30 cm wide. The slabs can be laid tightly over the surface of the concrete ring. The insulation technology is the same as in the case of foam. The joints between the plates are blown out with polyurethane foam.
- Cellular polymer insulation is produced in rolls. The material is flexible, has low thermal conductivity, is resistant to moisture and heavy loads. Isolon and its analogs, for example, penoline or isonel, are a popular representative of rolled thermal insulation. There are brands of self-adhesive polymer insulation. If there is no adhesive layer, the insulation is fixed to the surface of the concrete ring with outdoor adhesive. The joints are glued with tape so that moisture does not leak under the insulation. After winding the ring, the trench around it is covered with soil.
- The most modern and most reliable insulation is polyurethane foam. The mixture is applied to the surface of a concrete ring by spraying. After hardening, a strong shell is formed that does not require additional waterproofing. The insulation can withstand heavy loads, is plastic, and has low thermal conductivity. Polyurethane foam does not damage rodents and insects. The only drawback is the high cost. To insulate the well in the country, you will need special equipment. It is not profitable to buy it for one job. We'll have to hire specialists from outside.
- Mineral wool is absent among the listed heaters. The material is very popular, but it is not suitable for insulating wells.
Mineral wool will serve well in dry environments. The well is sprinkled on the outside with soil, which gets wet during rain, melting snow. Even reliable waterproofing is not able to protect the mineral wool. The thermal insulation is saturated with water and loses its properties. In winter, wet cotton wool will freeze, doing more harm than good to concrete rings.
How to insulate a well for the winter with your own hands
There are two ways to insulate a well: during its construction or a ready-made structure. The first option is optimal and requires less labor. If the well has already been built, for thermal insulation it will have to be dug out to a depth below 50-100 cm from the level of soil freezing.
The video shows an example of how you can insulate a well from concrete rings with your own hands with foil-coated material:
When the water supply is equipped from a well, a caisson is placed above the mouth of the mine. In homemade construction, the structure is often made of concrete rings. The structure is an ordinary shaft with a ladder to descend. Inside there are pumping equipment, a hydraulic accumulator, filters, valves, piping and other automation units.
The caisson head can protrude to the surface of the ground or be completely buried. However, in any case, it will freeze through without insulation. Even in a buried structure, the upper part of the shaft cannot be located below the level of soil freezing.
Thermal insulation measures for concrete rings can be carried out in two ways:
- If a mine made of concrete rings on the outside has reliable waterproofing, do-it-yourself insulation of the well with foam is done from the inside. The walls are pasted over with several layers of thin plates, since it is easier for them to give a semicircular shape. Roll-up foam is great. The disadvantage of internal insulation is the reduction of the space inside the well. In addition, the foam is easily damaged during equipment maintenance.
- Outside, insulation is performed in three cases: with poor waterproofing of the mine from rings, if loose thermal insulation is used or there is a need to prevent a decrease in the internal space. Polyfoam is less suitable for such work. It is optimal to insulate the well with expanded polystyrene or polymer insulation with a foil coating.
Advice! If the external insulation of the well is not enough, electric heating is installed inside the mine for the winter. The system works automatically in tandem with a temperature sensor.
There is another reliable but difficult way. To insulate the wall, the well is completely dug up. The mine is fenced off from the ground with a casing. Its diameter is larger than the diameter of the concrete rings by 2 thicknesses of thermal insulation. This is the only option where you can apply mineral wool. An important condition is the organization of reliable waterproofing.
The fact is that the insulation will have to be pushed into the gap formed between the inner wall of the casing and the outer surface of the concrete rings. The use of foam or sprayed insulation is irrelevant here. It is impossible to densely fill the space with materials. The mineral wool is pushed so tightly that the possibility of voids formation is excluded.
How to insulate a water well for the winter
Inside the water well, there are usually shut-off and control valves, emergency drain taps. In order not to freeze the knot, it must be insulated. There are three ways to insulate a water well:
- Insulation from the inside. The method is used for wells for technological purposes. In the version with plumbing, it is enough to insulate the hatch.
- Ground insulation outside. The method is based on the insulation of a part of the well located above the ground level.
- Underground insulation outside. The method is based on digging a well shaft to the full depth of immersion in the ground and fastening to the insulation rings.
To insulate the hatch, it is necessary to make an additional cover of such a diameter that it fits tightly inside the shaft of reinforced concrete rings. There are many options. The lid is knocked together from boards, cut out of plywood, expanded polystyrene plates. Be sure to come up with handles made of wire or other material so that it is convenient to lift.
An excellent design is considered a cover of two halves. It is more convenient to lay it in and out of the mine. Place the cover deep inside the well at a mark below the freezing level of the soil. Under it, you will have to fix the limiters on the inner wall of the ring. From above, the well is covered with an ordinary hatch. The inner cover will not keep the mine from being flooded by rainwater.
They carry out external overground insulation of wells with penoplex or polystyrene foam. The shell is laid over the concrete walls of the ring, protecting the thermal insulation with decorative trim. Usually, a wooden head plays the role of protection and additional thermal insulation. The structure is assembled from timber and boards. A door is provided on the head that replaces the hatch.
With external underground insulation, the well is dug in to a depth below 1 m of the level of soil freezing. The concrete surface is treated with a primer, waterproofing is installed, and expanded polystyrene plates are fixed. From above, the thermal insulation is closed with another layer of waterproofing, backfilling of the soil is performed. The part of the insulated shaft protruding above the ground is covered with bricks. You can install a wooden head in the same way as in the previous method.
How to insulate a sewer well for the winter
The thermal insulation of the sewer well is no different from the activities carried out for the water supply. If the level of freezing of the soil is small, it is enough to install a wooden head above the shaft of rings. It is not reasonable to make the inner cover. It is inconvenient to use it in a sewer well. In addition, the lid can be flooded with sewage.
For cold regions where deep soil freezing is observed, the method of external underground thermal insulation is acceptable. The mine is dug in, and first of all, they equip a reliable waterproofing. If sewage from the well penetrates through the joints between the rings to the insulation, it will disappear. Further actions include fixing polystyrene foam plates or spraying polyurethane foam. After backfilling the soil, the upper part of the well is closed with a wooden head.
Advice! In snowy regions, you do not need to resort to additional insulation measures. In winter, the sewer hatch is simply covered with a thick layer of snow.
In the video, an example of well insulation:
Drainage well insulation
In most summer cottages, drainage wells are not used in winter. Water was pumped out of the mine, equipment was removed. Such structures do not require thermal insulation. It is simply not needed.
The need to create an insulated well in the country disappears if the closed-type drainage system is located below the freezing level of the soil. The water here will not freeze at extremely low temperatures.
Thermal insulation is in demand when the drainage system is operating year-round and the filtration drainage well is not deep. Insulation is performed in exactly the same way as for the sewage system. You can simply sprinkle gravel on the rings from the outside. To do this, the mine is dug in. The pit walls are covered with geotextiles. The entire space is covered with gravel. Do not forget to insulate the supply drain pipes.
Tips & Tricks
Typically, the temperature inside the insulated mine in winter is maintained within + 5 aboutC. This is sufficient for the normal functioning of any system. If it happened that the insulation of the well made of concrete rings was destroyed by rodents, the water will not freeze right away. It can get a little bit cold. The first sign of danger is a decrease in system performance. You must immediately open the hatch and assess the situation. Stuck pipes can be easily thawed by sprinkling with hot water. A good effect is given by a directed jet of hot air from a hair dryer or fan heater.
To hold out until the spring repair of thermal insulation, the pipeline inside the well is covered with rags or mineral wool. You can hang a heating cable on the shaft walls and turn it on periodically during severe frosts.
Warming of a well made of concrete rings of any type occurs practically according to the same principle. It is better to perform this procedure immediately at the stage of its construction and laying of communications, otherwise you will have to do extra work.