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One of the areas of modern breeding is plant breeding specifically for specific climatic regions. The Pervouralskaya apple variety easily adapts to the harsh conditions of a long winter and a short summer. Subject to all the rules of agricultural technology, the tree will delight its owners with abundant harvests.
The creator of the Pervouralskaya variety is the Sverdlovsk Experimental Gardening Station. For the first time an apple tree of late ripening was bred by L. Kotov in 2000. Persianka became the mother variety for Pervouralskaya. Taking all the best aspects of the original species as a basis, scientists were able to create the first tree in history that is immediately immune to all 5 strains of scab.
Characteristics of the Pervouralskaya apple tree
Like most new apple varieties, this type was created taking into account the specific climatic conditions of the Ural region. A characteristic feature of the variety is its high frost resistance and excellent immunity to diseases. Many farmers and owners of summer cottages fell in love with the apple tree for the beautiful appearance of the fruits and their keeping quality.
Apple tree Pervouralskaya easily tolerates temperature drops up to -35 degrees
The variety is characterized by a rather early start of fruiting. Depending on the type of rootstock chosen, the first fruits on the tree begin to appear in the 4th or 5th year of life. At the same time, the maximum yield occurs already 7-8 years after planting in open ground.
Fruit and tree appearance
The apple tree of the Pervouralskaya variety rarely reaches a height of more than 4 m. The best vegetation is observed in flat areas and rich soils. In harsh climatic conditions and on poor soils, the tree grows no higher than 2-2.5 m. The crown of the apple tree is wide, oval. The branches are quite frequent - this creates a dense foliage. Shoots are short, often thicker than other varieties. Each year, the seedling gains up to 30 cm in height under favorable conditions.
Important! Given the density of leaves and branching of Pervouralskaya, it needs more solid sanitary and formative pruning.
Apple fruits of this variety have a regular rounded shape without ribs and depressions. Most often, apples of similar size ripen on one branch. The average weight of Pervouralskaya fruits is about 150 g. Under favorable conditions, the weight can reach up to 300 g. The color of the fruits is most often greenish-yellow, however, there are specimens of an orange-red hue. The skin is thin and dense, covered with a light waxy coating.
Depending on the type of rootstock used, the Pervouralskaya apple tree is divided into 2 subspecies. In the first case, it is grown in the form of a standard tree with a spherical crown, having a central trunk, reaching a height of 4 m or more. If the variety was grafted into a dwarf or wild stock, the apple tree will not grow above 2 m, but will begin to bear fruit at an earlier age - 3-4 years after planting in open ground.
Like most representatives of its species, the Pervouralskaya apple tree in the first years of life pleases gardeners with active vegetation. After 7-8 years, the growth of the tree slows down - this is due to the highest yield, which lasts for 15-20 years. With regular care and timely bait, the variety can easily achieve a fruiting time of up to 30-40 years.
The pulp of the fruit of a bright creamy color pleases with a powerful apple aroma and a balanced sweet and sour taste. It is quite dense and consists of small grains. According to an expert tasting assessment, the Pervouralskaya variety scored 4.4 on the traditional 5-point scale.
Apple fruits of the Pervouralskaya variety have a balanced sweet and sour taste.
Like most of the zoned varieties, this type of apple has been specially bred for cultivation in a specific area. As the name suggests, the native region for the tree is the southern and central Urals. The variety easily tolerates all the features of the harsh continental climate - hot summers and severe winters. With a sufficient layer of mulch, the plant survives even at temperatures of -35 degrees.
Important! Growing varieties in southern regions with a warm climate is impractical, since there are more productive varieties.
The Pervouralskaya apple tree is cultivated with enviable success in the central and northwestern regions of the country. Given the milder climate of these areas, some measures for preparing for wintering - mulching and shelter from the wind - can be omitted.
Most gardeners choose their crops according to the projected yields. Apple tree Pervouralskaya boasts excellent collection rates. Under conditions of industrial cultivation, about 20 tons of fruits are harvested from one hectare. Of course, with a summer cottage planting with the creation of almost ideal conditions, you can count on more abundant harvests.
Thanks to the efforts of domestic breeders, one of the few varieties was bred that can withstand the fall of the thermometer to such critical negative values. The Pervouralskaya apple tree survives frosts down to -40 degrees, subject to additional preparation - abundant mulching and sheltering the branches from the wind. If, according to forecasts of weather forecasters, the temperature does not drop below -20, it is possible not to prepare the tree for winter.
Disease and pest resistance
The Pervouralskaya variety is the first artificially bred species, completely immune to the main trouble of all apple trees - scab. None of the 5 known strains of this disease do it any harm. Other diseases most often appear with insufficient tree care. The most common ailments of Pervouralskaya:
- powdery mildew;
- fruit rot;
- mosaic disease;
- fungal diseases.
The Pervouralskaya variety has complete immunity to all types of scab.
Most often, the fungus appears with a large accumulation of aphids, whiteflies and scale insects. These insects secrete waste products that disrupt the proper vegetation of the apple tree. At the first signs of infection, it is necessary to treat the plantings with special fungicidal and insecticidal preparations.
Flowering period and ripening period
Given the rather long winters, the active growing season of the apple tree begins relatively late. Provided that the snow melts in early April, active budding will begin only by the middle or end of May. The fruits reach technical maturity by the end of September.
Important! If you skip the harvest date or harvest earlier, the consumer characteristics of apples will be much worse.
In order to guess as accurately as possible with the time of harvesting the fruits, you need to focus on taste. It should be sour with a touch of sweetness. Do not be afraid that the fruits are not ripe. They will gain their consumer maturity only after 2-3 months - during this time the acid will turn into carbohydrates, and the fiber will become softer.
Apple pollinators Pervouralskaya
The cultivar is not self-pollinating. For the formation of fruits, the tree needs the proximity of other representatives of fruit crops. Late varieties are best suited as pollinators, the flowering period of which coincides with Pervouralskaya. In mid-May, Aksyna, Rozochka, the Olympic flame and the Torch bloom. For pollination, it is recommended to observe the ratio of trees of different varieties in a 1: 1 ratio.
Transportation and keeping quality
Like other late apple varieties, Pervouralskaya retains its consumer qualities for a long time. Considering the long period of reaching full maturity and the impressive shelf life, even when stored in an unheated cellar, apples easily lie until March or April. When using specialized equipment, shelf life can reach 8-9 months.
The dense skin of the Pervouralskaya variety provides ease of transportation
Excellent parameters of keeping quality and density of the pulp ensure the preservation of the presentation during transportation. When transported in bulk, the skins of apples are not injured. Taking into account the 2-month period of maturation to full maturity, delivery of the product to the final consumer will take place without losing the presentation.
Advantages and disadvantages
Having absorbed all the advantages of the maternal variety, Pervouralskaya apple tree occupies one of the leading lines relative to other zoned varieties. The most important advantages of the tree include:
- winter hardiness;
- long shelf life of fruits;
- good immunity;
- early onset of fruiting;
- beautiful appearance of the fruit;
- abundant productivity.
As disadvantages, the inability of the apple tree to self-pollinate and, as a consequence, the impossibility of single planting of one crop on an industrial scale is most often distinguished. Also, some experts refer to the disadvantages of weak competitiveness relative to other varieties in more favorable climatic conditions.
Depending on the wishes of the summer resident, the rooting of seedlings of the Pervouralskaya apple tree can be done both in spring and in autumn. A prerequisite is the early preparation of the planting holes - at least 3-4 months before planting. The dimensions of the depressions vary depending on the type of soil. For fertile chernozems, 60 cm will be enough, for loams and sandy loam soils, about 1 m is needed.
Important! With a thickened planting on medium-sized rootstocks, a distance of 3 m should be maintained between the edges of the planting holes.
Apple tree seedlings must have a developed root system and a strong stem
The Pervouralskaya apple tree does not require a large amount of fertilizer in the first year after planting. Only a bucket of mullein and a little root growth accelerator are added to the planting pit for more active survival. The seedling is rooted so that the grafting site protrudes 2-3 cm above the soil level. After planting, the tree is abundantly watered and mulched with a small layer of sawdust for a couple of weeks. If necessary, the seedling is tied to a high stop using a string or clothesline.
Growing and care
A properly selected set of agrotechnical measures will provide the Pervouralskaya apple with a healthy appearance and abundant harvests. The main requirements include regular watering, applying groundbait, removing weeds, pruning and preparing for the winter period.
Important! It is always worth keeping the apple tree trunks clean - weeds take away a significant amount of moisture.
For the Pervouralskaya variety, the first year of life after rooting is especially important. Several weeks after planting in open ground, it is necessary to follow the watering schedule - once every 3 days. Further moistening is performed as the soil near the trunk circles dries up. Complex fertilizers are applied 2 times a year - after the snow melts and the harvest. A month before the onset of the calendar winter, the Pervouralskaya apple tree is abundantly mulched with a layer of sawdust or spruce needles.
Apple pruning is divided into 2 types - sanitary and formative. In the first case, we mean the removal of shoots and branches damaged during the winter with excessive thickening of the crown. Formative pruning is necessary to create the correct spherical shape.
Collection and storage
Harvesting begins immediately after the fruit reaches technical maturity. The apples are harvested together with the stalk - this will significantly increase the shelf life. The best containers for collecting fruit are wicker baskets or wooden pallets. Only specimens without mechanical damage will fit, therefore, harvesting must be taken as carefully as possible.
The fruit of the apple tree is harvested together with the stalk.
After harvesting, the apples are placed in special storage containers. Each fruit is wrapped in paper to prevent aging. The boxes are removed to an unheated basement or cellar at their summer cottage. At an average temperature of 4-6 degrees, apples retain their consumer properties for 5-6 months.
The Pervouralskaya apple variety is excellent for growing in a harsh continental climate. The tree easily survives thermometer fluctuations up to -35 degrees. Even with minimal maintenance and short summer seasons, bountiful harvests can be expected.
Valentin Shestopalov, 54 years old, Magnitogorsk.
In the Urals, winters are sometimes very cold and with little snow. In such critical conditions, a rare apple tree will remain healthy by the spring. The Pervouralskaya variety has been growing in my garden for about 12 years. During this time, not a single frost-damaged seedling was found even in the first year after planting. Yields are stable even in years when the summer is very short.
Inna Sergeeva, 49 years old, Perm.
I liked the Pervouralskaya apple variety very much due to its long keeping quality and preservation of taste. Even at the beginning of April, fresh fruits from the last harvest always remain in our house. From one 10-year-old apple tree I collect about 60-70 kg of fruits. The result is much better than many other varieties.