Flower beds decorate the local area, garden or park. Correctly decorated flower beds simply attract attention, are an island of bright colors, but, in addition, they also perform an important function - they help to divide and organize the space on the site. Landscape designers are engaged in the design and decoration of flower beds, and this is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. It is necessary to carry out accurate calculations, engage in drawings, colors, take into account the peculiarities of the plants included in the flower garden.
It is not at all necessary to pay professionals - it is quite possible to arrange a flower bed with your own hands. And to make it easier, beginners are advised to choose perennial plants and draw up simple diagrams.
What are the flower beds
Flowerbeds can differ not only in shape, but also in filling, and the shades of flowers, and the height of the plants, and the period of their flowering are different - all this must be taken into account by the gardener during the execution of the scheme.
A schematic representation of the future flower garden is necessary in order to:
- properly organize the space on the site;
- take into account the size and shape of the free space allocated for the flower bed;
- choose the most harmonious composition of colors of various shades;
- correctly distribute flowers inside the flower bed and along its contour, taking into account the height and branching of the plants.
Among other things, the flower bed diagram depicted on paper and painted with colored pencils will help visualize the picture and understand how a real flower arrangement will look like.
Important! It is convenient to transfer the schemes to the ground by the method of dividing into squares - a flowerbed drawn on a scale is divided into several identical zones, then each of them is sequentially transferred to the site.
In shape, flower beds can be of several types, the most popular are:
- Modular flower beds are a group of plants combined into one composition with blind area elements, garden paths, steps, small architectural compositions such as garden sculptures, artificial reservoirs, and other decorative elements.
- Mixborders are a combination of a wide variety of plants, flower beds of this type are performed in free form, and their size is also unlimited. Most often, garden paths or hedges are decorated with rectangular elongated mixborders.
- Tapeworms should have at least one common feature: the shape of the inflorescences, the shade of the plants, the height of the coating, the variety of flowers. Such repeating flower beds with a common feature should be in close proximity to each other and be clearly visible, otherwise tapeworms will not be perceived as a single composition.
- Rabatki are stricter flower beds. They should have clearly defined contours, the ratio of their width to length is 1: 3, and the ridges should be filled with plain colors or simple geometric patterns. It is the ridges that most often border the paths of the garden, they are also used to divide large flower beds into zones.
- The curbs are small (up to 50 cm) and are distinguished by plants of low height. Such compact flower liners are used to limit the larger elements of the flower bed.
- Rockeries are also called rock gardens, because both plants and boulders are used in their design.
- Rockeries differ from rockeries in that only plants inherent in the flora of the Alps or other low-growing and compact flowers are planted in them.
Attention! In order to avoid mistakes, as a first experience, a beginner is recommended to choose a flower bed of an arbitrary shape that does not require clear boundaries.
For example, you can opt for a mixborder or a modular-type flower bed (as in the photo).
Drawing up a flower bed of perennials is good, first of all, because such flowers do not have to be planted annually, besides, most perennial flowers are not whimsical and tolerate cold winters well.
That is why it is enough for a beginner to draw a flower bed diagram once, transfer it to the site and fill it with flowers, after which you can enjoy the beauty of the plants decorated in a composition for several years.
A flowerbed of perennials with your own hands, as already mentioned, should be as simple as possible. For beginner gardeners, the following simple flower arrangements are suitable:
- Isle. It is a round or oval flower bed, located on a free area of the garden. Often such flower arrangements fill wastelands - places without trees and other vegetation. The borders of the island's flower beds may well be indistinct, slightly blurred. It is not at all necessary to divide this flower garden into sectors - the flowers in the island can be located freely, the main thing is that they are combined in tone and height. Basically, the blooming island is filled in several tiers: the tallest plants (80-150 cm) are planted in the center of the circle, then they are bordered with flowers of medium height (from 40 to 70 cm), and the borders of the island are outlined with low-growing flowers, the height of which does not exceed 30 cm The same compact bushes can be used to fill the empty areas of the flower bed formed after planting all the flowers in the composition. You can arrange a flowerbed in the form of an island close to a fence or a building, only in this case, it is a semicircle in which the background is filled with the highest flowers, and low-growing plants are planted in front (a sample is shown in the photo).
- A live fence is made near hedges or on both sides of the garden path. To design such a composition, different types of flowers are planted in the form of a line, the width of which can vary.
- An illusion is a composition that resembles a natural landscape. The most popular embodiment of this idea is a flowing stream. So, flowers (usually blue and blue) are planted in a flowerbed in the form of a snake, tightly placing the plants to each other. "Shores" are created from flowers of a contrasting shade, placing them along the contour of the "channel" of the brook (shown in the photo below). For such a composition, you need a lot of space, so it's better not to use the illusion in small areas.
- A cover or carpet is a continuous layer of flowers of the same height. Most often, plants of the same type are used for such flower beds, but different shades of flowers are chosen. From the side of the flowerbed, the carpet looks like a fluffy and voluminous bedspread.
- A fantasy pattern in the shape of a heart, a large flower, a letter or an inscription is considered a more complex composition, because the effectiveness of such a flower bed depends entirely on the quality of its execution - the boundaries of the flower garden should be clear, only in this way the viewer will appreciate the designer's idea.
A flower bed of perennials for beginners
Having decided on the type of flower bed, its size and location, they proceed to the direct implementation of the idea. And first, you need to draw your flower garden on a large sheet of paper. After the drawing is completed, it must be painted with colored pencils, choosing the shades that match each other.
Attention! In order not to be mistaken in the color scheme, it is recommended to arrange a flower bed of perennials of a similar shade - for example, combine bright pink flowers with more delicate shades of the same color.
An even easier way is to use two contrasting colors. It can be blue and yellow, red and white, and so on.
In recent years, ombre-type flower beds have become increasingly popular. This is when one shade fades into another. Another way of combining colors is called a gradient. Perennials for such a flower bed need to be selected especially carefully, their shades should be pastel, so the transition boundaries will be extremely smooth. An example of an ombre-type perennial flower bed can be the following transition of tones: terracotta, pink-peach, pink, pale pink, cream. The novice gardener can only pick up perennials with flowers of a suitable shade.
Perennials are divided into many groups, but their main division is whimsical. This is what should first of all worry a novice gardener - what kind of care will be required for flowers from one flower bed.
Advice! Ideally, if the flower bed is made up of perennials with the same needs, for example, flowers that love the sun, neutral soil that do not need frequent watering and annual replanting.
Indeed, if some perennials require shade, others grow only in the sun, others need to be watered every day, and for the fourth, excessive moisture is destructive, the flower bed will simply die, and there will be no talk of any beauty.
All perennials are divided into three main groups:
- Unpretentious perennials are suitable for almost any flower garden. These plants are undemanding to light, watering, soil composition - they grow in any conditions. Another important characteristic of unpretentious perennials is that the flowers do not have to be planted annually and they perfectly tolerate frosts without shelter. All perennial plants need: watering during dry periods and forming bushes in spring. This group includes such flowers: geranium, acolyte, brunner, helenium, mallow, purse and sedum, doronicum, poppy.
- Moderately laborious perennials are not particularly capricious, they do not need daily care, but the gardener will have to take into account the growing conditions of such plants (light, soil type, irrigation schedule, fertilization). And yet, perennials from the second group must be transplanted and divided at least once every two to three years. These include gentian, arabis, cornflower, clematis and armeria.
- The most complex perennials belong to the third group and need regular care, adherence to growing conditions, and constant attention of the gardener. Such flowers often get sick, attract pests, and do not tolerate cold weather. These "sissies" include chrysanthemums, gladioli, roses, bulbous flowers, dahlias, begonias, hyacinths and others.
When choosing perennials for your flower bed, you need to give preference to plants from one group, then caring for the flower garden will be as simple as possible, and the flowers themselves will feel comfortable.
Making a flower bed of perennials
The plan is drawn up, the scheme is there, the flowers are bought - all that remains is to plant the plants in the soil. To begin with, the selected area is cleared, stones, plant roots are removed. Then the soil must be fertilized with complex fertilizers and dug to a depth of about 40 cm (shovel bayonet).
Depending on the composition of the soil on the site, it is necessary to carry out drainage or, conversely, take measures to retain water (which is needed on sandy soils, for example). Peat, coarse river sand, small pebbles are used for drainage, these materials are poured in a 5-10 cm layer on the bottom of the site under the flower garden. Clay or chernozem can be used as a water retainer.
Attention! A bed of perennials should be located on a hill, so the soil will most likely have to be filled up.
The height of the flower garden should be at the level of 10-15 cm, so that during precipitation the water does not stagnate in the flowers and does not harm them.
Now the earth is leveled with a rake and the flower garden scheme is transferred to the surface.
This can be done with a wooden peg or lime powder. Now it remains to plant the plants in the flowerbed, trying to do it as carefully as possible, following the drawn plan.
When planting flowers, do not forget about the tiers of the flower bed. In addition, the gardener must understand that perennials grow more than one season, so young plants need to leave room for growth.
Advice! In the early years, the gaps between the plants in the flower bed can be filled with annual flowers or greens to make the flower garden look decorated.
Finally, it should be noted that it is very important to select perennials that have approximately the same flowering time. After all, a flower bed with blossoming buds and dried flowers located nearby looks more than untidy, and the composition will be spoiled.
Beginners should take this into account and choose perennials for their garden that bloom in spring, summer or autumn. Although today there are many plant species that bloom throughout the season: violets, pansies, roses, evergreen shrubs and ornamental grasses.
Photos of perennial flower beds will help a novice gardener decide, and do not forget that it is better to start with a simple one.