The harvesting period of cucumbers ends already in the fall, but in order to get the juicy and healthy fruits of the garden crop throughout the year, you can use the greenhouse growing technology. In the early autumn, a film greenhouse can be used for this purpose, and it is easiest to plant and grow cucumbers in the winter in the greenhouse. Greenhouse cucumbers that are properly grown in winter are not inferior in taste to the soil crop.
Proper cultivation of cucumbers in greenhouses begins with a competent choice of the most suitable design for winter cultivation of vegetable crops. To provide cucumbers with optimal conditions for growth, development and fruiting, it is necessary to correctly select a greenhouse.
What height should a greenhouse be for cucumbers
Currently, domestic manufacturers produce many models of greenhouses and greenhouses, but they all differ in size, reliability, height and a number of other parameters:
- ideal for the growth and development of cucumbers is a greenhouse structure 2.5 meters high;
- the height of the walls in double-pitch greenhouses should not be less than 1.8-2.0 m;
- the height of the greenhouse should be sufficient to conveniently carry out any work related to the care of a vegetable crop.
A sufficient height of the greenhouse allows you to make the microclimate inside more stable, regardless of the time of year. Greenhouses can be standard and non-standard, and for their manufacture polycarbonate, glass, wood and metal are most often used. It is especially important to choose the right greenhouse design for the winter cultivation of cucumbers, so you need to know what parameters you need to pay attention to first.
Necessarily erected on a foundation basis. In the central part a trench is arranged. Such an in-depth passage is necessary for the accumulation of cold air masses and to prevent hypothermia of the root system of plants. The design is quick heating
An easily dismantled version of the greenhouse, which makes it possible to transfer the structure for installation in a new place. It is made most often from a metal profile with bolted connections. Polycarbonate is used as a coating. The basis of the greenhouse construction are piles
Allows you to grow both traditional crops and exotic plants
Heated greenhouse structures can be buried in the ground, mounted on the surface, equipped on the top of the structure, which is used as garages and sheds
Gable, gable, gable, arched, wall, combined
Brick, wood, metal or PVC frame equipped with a glass and polycarbonate coating can be used. Combined designs are also popular.
Solar heats, biofuel constructions, constructions with stove, gas, electric or water heating
The width of the greenhouse is two or three meters. The length varies depending on the wishes of the owner, but most often the factory products are 2-8 meters long.
Choosing the type of greenhouse
The following varieties of hotbeds are most popular in home gardening:
- arc greenhouses under the film;
- based on polycarbonate.
A properly selected greenhouse allows you to provide the garden culture with optimal temperature and humidity, makes it possible to grow seedlings and adult plants, helps to extend the fruiting period and obtain the earliest, most plentiful crop.
Growing seedlings of cucumbers
Planting early cucumbers in a greenhouse
The rules for obtaining an early harvest require the cultivation of cucumbers exclusively in seedlings. Successful cultivation of early garden crops directly depends on competent soil preparation and the selection of the best varieties that provide high productivity in greenhouse conditions.
The soil for cucumbers is prepared in advance, and should have the following properties:
- high fertility rate;
- high throughput;
- good moisture absorption;
- reaction as close to neutral as possible.
A mixture based on soddy soil and fresh humus is best suited. A good result is given by growing on a substrate, which includes peat chips, humus, garden soil and rotted coniferous sawdust.
Rules for preparing greenhouse soil for planting:
- removal of plant debris from ridges;
- disinfecting the soil with a solution based on copper sulfate;
- digging of soil on one bayonet of a shovel;
- the introduction of a nutrient mixture represented by potassium sulfate, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate.
The surface of the soil on the ridges must be leveled. The standard width of the ridges is a meter at a height of a quarter meter.
When to plant in a greenhouse in different regions
Planting cucumbers is not difficult even for beginner gardeners, but the timing in which you need to plant seedlings or sow seeds can vary depending on soil and climatic conditions.
Seeding for seedlings
Sowing on greenhouse ridges
Planting seedlings in unheated greenhouses
Northern regions, including Siberia and the Urals
Territory of Central Russia
From April 15 to May 5
From May 15 to June 5
Moscow and Moscow region
From April 15 to May 5
From May 15 to June 5
St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region
Southern regions and Primorye
The territory of the Crimean peninsula
From March 1 to March 15
Happy April, 1
From the first decade of April
The best varieties
Not all varieties and hybrid forms of cucumbers are suitable for growing in greenhouse conditions. Preference is given to parthenocarpic hybrids, but there are also many varieties that have worked well in closed ground conditions.
Variety / Hybrid Name
Early ripe varieties and hybrids
High resistance to disease and adverse weather
Super early ripening, with excellent cold resistance, suitable for northern regions
A very friendly crop formation, a bouquet type of fruiting, a very cold-resistant and shade-tolerant hybrid
Parthenocarpic varieties and hybrids
Self-pollinating, high-yielding, completely devoid of bitterness
High immunity to powdery mildew and bacteriosis, with excellent taste
Female type of flowering, with abundant and prolonged fruiting, universal use
Shade-tolerant, long-fruited, with excellent immunity to cucumber mosaic and powdery mildew
Salad hybrid form with medium resistance to major diseases and excellent taste
High yield hybrid form with excellent palatability, long fruiting, universal use
Early ripening, universal use, excellent taste, suitable for cultivation in the northern regions
Hybrid form with fruits aligned in shape and size, attractive appearance, good taste
Hybrid forms of gherkins "Friendly Family", "Merry Company" and "Shchedryk" are very popular for growing in greenhouses.
How to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse
Winter greenhouse technology
The traditional technology of growing greenhouse cucumbers in the winter has recently undergone some changes, which must be taken into account if you want to get a high and high-quality crop.
Quite often, in the conditions of one greenhouse space, cucumbers are grown along with tomatoes. But unlike tomatoes, cucumbers need to create a fairly strict microclimate:
- Sharp temperature extremes must not be allowed;
- as a result of increasing the temperature regime to a level of 35 ° C and above, as well as lowering it to 12-14 ° C, pollen is not viable, poorly pollinated, and the ovaries fall;
- good growth and fruiting are observed at optimum moisture indices of 85-90%, and a lack or excess of moisture provokes falling of ovaries, dying off foliage, deformation of the fruit and a general decrease in yield.
To obtain a high yield, carbon dioxide plays an important role, the lack of which sharply delays the formation of female flowers.
In a greenhouse, garden crops can be arranged in several ways. The traditional version is represented by landing on ridges with a horizontal arrangement of growing stems. Such ridges are often formed on compost or dung grounds.
In recent years, growing greenhouse hybrids with placement on special trellises has become increasingly popular. In this case, the plant is planted in an ordinary way, and the growing stems are located in the vertical direction. The average trellis height can vary between 1.8-2.2 m. Form cucumber bushes, in this case, should be by pinching the shoots.
Greenhouse Cucumber Nutrition
To ensure a nutritious vegetable culture, it is necessary to adhere to the standard rules for fertilizing and feeding cucumbers at different stages of development. The first top dressing is introduced at the beginning of fruiting. About a month after planting the seedlings, complex compounds are introduced. Such high-grade fertilizers need to be used three to four times a month. It is not recommended to feed cucumbers with potassium salt and potassium chloride, which is due to the botanical characteristics of the culture.
Particular attention should be paid to water temperature for irrigation. It should be approximately 25-26 ° C. Watering with cold water causes a delay in the appearance of female flowers, inhibit the growth and development of culture, weaken the resistance to pathogenic microflora, worsen the quality of the crop. In protected ground conditions, it is optimal to use a drip irrigation system, which allows for optimal distribution of moisture, and is suitable for carrying out liquid top dressing.
Growing greenhouse cucumbers is impossible without regular ventilation. For this purpose, depending on the type of construction, air vents, doors, as well as forced ventilation, which is installed most often in capital buildings, can be used.
Cucumber greenhouse lighting
High-quality lighting of the greenhouse space in the winter is the key to obtaining a high yield. In a closed environment, fluorescent lamps, as well as metal halide, mercury, sodium and fluorescent lighting devices can be used.
Disease and Pest Prevention
In sheltered soil, it is very important to timely prevent damage by pests and diseases that cause enormous damage to the crop. In cultivation facilities, the main method of protection is biological. The use of chemicals should be minimal. The main diseases of a vegetable crop grown in protected ground are as follows:
- root rot;
- basal rot;
- gray rot;
- white rot;
- powdery mildew;
- olive spotting;
Pests of greenhouse cucumbers are represented by potato, melon and greenhouse aphids, as well as whiteflies, for the destruction of which you can use the biological product "Actofit." For the purpose of prevention, they are treated with Ordan, Previkur, Quadris, one percent Bordeaux liquid, Fundazole solution, copper chloroxide or similar drugs.
Vertical cultivation of cucumbers in a greenhouse
Juicy and healthy cucumbers are in demand in our country throughout the year. They are eaten fresh, salted and pickled, used to make salads and soups, so if it is possible to use a greenhouse for growing crops, a high year-round crop will be guaranteed.