House and garden

Lychee: how to get exotic on your site


Lychee - (Litchi chinensis) plant, which belongs to the family of Salinda. There are several other names for the fruit - "Chinese plum", "liji" or "fox". The plant was first grown in China. At the moment, it is common in America, China, Africa, Japan.

The fruit is oval. The peel is pimply, red. The pulp is white or cream color. The diameter of the fetus is 3 cm.

The leaves are narrow and elongated. Productivity has been growing for 20 years. Harvesting occurs from May to June.

In Southeast Asia, fruits similar to lychees are grown - longan. They are smaller in mass and size and ripen somewhat later. One tree produces about 300 grams of fruit. Experts say that canned longan has greater benefits than lychee. At the same time, the plant is more cold-resistant, which allows it to be grown in central Russia.

What is the use of fruit

Lychee is not only pleasant in taste, but also in that it is rich in useful substances. Lychee contains vitamins, potassium, proteins, phosphorus, iron and pectins. The fruit is rich in vitamin PP. The presented substance effectively fights against atherosclerosis.

Lychee is useful for the digestive tract. It normalizes digestion and metabolic processes. Since the fruit saturates quickly enough, it should be consumed before main meals to avoid overeating. Lychee promotes faster production of gastric juice.

Lychee is a wonderful aphrodisiac. Its benefit lies in the fact that it normalizes hormonal levels.

Harmful fruit properties

Lychee is not recommended to be used excessively. It does not go well with foods that are high in protein. Among other things, lychee can cause increased gas formation.

Agricultural technology

Bone growing

Knowing the features of agricultural technology, the fruit can be grown even from seed. How to do it?

  1. Separate the pulp from the bone.
  2. Rinse the bone with water and place in a thick cloth moistened with water.
  3. Place it in a warm place for 7 days.
  4. If the fabric dries, moisten it again.
  5. After 7 days, look at the size of the bone. If it has become larger, you can begin to land.
  6. Then a container is taken, filled with soil, the bone is planted 3 centimeters in depth.
  7. Watering is done as the soil dries.

Direct sowing

To grow lychee by direct sowing, you will need a flower pot. The soil can be used universal, which is suitable for all seedlings. There must be a hole on the bottom of the tank to remove water.

When planting a bone, make sure that its blunt end is up - a sprout appears from here. Watering is done as it dries.

After a few weeks, a sprout will appear. This means that it is time to rearrange the plant in a warmer place. Watering, again, is done as the soil dries up - about a day later. Lychee is growing fast. It is recommended to spray its leaves from a spray bottle.

Growing by soaking in water

There is another method that allows you to grow lychee. For this, the bone is lowered into a small amount of unboiled water. After a week, the bone will crack, and a spine will come out of it. When it reaches a length of 1 cm, it will be possible to plant in the ground. A layer of soil is laid on top. It is necessary to periodically irrigate.

How to care

In order to grow lychee, it is necessary to ensure that the roots of the tree receive the necessary amount of oxygen. To do this, loosen the soil. For irrigation, only well-settled water at room temperature is suitable. Do not water the plant too often, otherwise the roots may rot. Leaves are sprayed from a spray bottle.

After the sprout is stretched to 10 centimeters, it is transplanted into a larger pot. To give the lychee a neat shape, pruning is performed in the first 2 years. Fertilizing occurs with the help of fertilizers for exotic plants.

Varieties

More than 100 plant varieties stand out. The fruits of all are edible. The most common varieties:

  • Muzaffarpur
  • rank;
  • lat seedles;
  • purby;
  • Earl Large Ed.

Small seed varieties are of great value. They need pollination. According to scientists, seedless trees to bring out is not possible.

The fruit has no serious pests or diseases. In China, they are simply protected from flying dogs and birds.

In America, California grows a longan. Sometimes fruit is cultivated even in places where it does not grow.

Features of growing in central Russia

Growing lychees in central Russia is quite difficult. The plant prefers a subtropical climate with dry, cool winters. In height, the tree can grow up to 30 meters! Development is slow. With vegetative propagation, fruiting can occur after 4 years. In seedlings, the appearance of fruits can be expected only after 8 years. The soil requires fertile, well-moistened.

The first three years, seedlings develop extremely slowly. Overflow and drying of the soil should not be allowed. A drainage of 3-4 centimeters is required. Soils with pH from 5.5 to 7.5 will be an excellent option. Mycorrhiza is required, but artificial can be taken - it is sold in granules. Lychees are sensitive to the salt composition of the soil - this also needs to be taken into account. After a warm winter, flowering plants can not wait.

After planting, young plants must be protected from cooling for a couple of years. Methods such as smoke and thatch are suitable for this. Landing also requires protection from the wind. A dry wind will cause young trees to drop leaves, and cracks can form on the fruits.

Despite the fact that loam will be the best soil option for lychee, plants can exist in absolutely any soil. With seed propagation, it is recommended to plant seeds immediately, otherwise they will lose germination. The root system of seedlings is strong. When planting, the distance between the trees should reach 6-16 meters.

The main part of the roots of the plant is located above the soil. Moreover, it is in symbiosis with mycorrhiza - soil fungi. Mycorrhiza perfectly absorbs nitrogen and nourishes the plant. In order for the lychee to develop well, you should take soil from old plants and pour on the root system of young ones.

The main plant care operations are watering and fertilizing. In the middle zone of Russia from February to June it is important to provide the soil with the necessary amount of moisture. In addition to nitrogen, the plant also needs phosphorus fertilizers. Zinc deficiency can be determined by the leaves - they acquire a bronze color. If this problem occurs, you should spray the tree crowns with zinc solution. Trimming is minimal - you need to remove dried branches.

Harvest Features

In order for the fruits to survive for a long time, they are removed when they turn pink, along with leaves and a fruit twig. The fruits are stacked in baskets, the depth of which should not be more than 25 cm. After a few days, the skin of the fruit darkens. From one tree you can get up to 150 kg of berries.

Fruits do not tolerate transportation. After collection, they can be stored for three days at room temperature. In chilled rooms, the fruit can be stored for several months - the temperature should reach 1-7 degrees. In China, India and Vietnam, lychees are dried, they can also be placed in bamboo stems and stored there in a salted form. When dried, the peel of the fruit becomes hard, and inside it is dried pulp and seeds - lychee nuts.

Lychee is a healthy and tasty fruit, ideal for canning. His homeland is China. But, if you try, you can grow the presented exotic even in the middle zone of Russia.

Lychee Fruit (video)


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