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Aristocratic freesia: features of growing in the garden, at home and in the greenhouse

Aristocratic freesia: features of growing in the garden, at home and in the greenhouse


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Freesia, or Freesia (Freesia), is not in vain called the flower of aristocrats. This culture belongs to the genus of African perennials from the Iris family. The catalog of this decorative and popular flowering culture includes a large number of species that can be planted both in the garden or greenhouse, and used for indoor gardening, grown in a flower pot or pot.

Plant characteristics

The average height of the ornamental plant varies between 20-80 cm, but some species reach a height of one meter. Freesia is characterized by the formation of a highly branched and bare stem part with linear foliage. On the leaves, a protruding and prominent central vein is clearly visible, the length of which can be 15-20 cm with a width of a centimeter.

Each plant most often has a pair of flowers, but up to five flowers can be formed, combined into a weak unilateral branched inflorescence. Flowers are characterized by pronounced aromaare narrowly funnel-shaped. Staining of the petals, depending on the characteristics of the variety and species, can be almost anything. Most often, staining is represented by whitish, cream, yellow, yellow-orange, pink, pinkish-red, lilac or blue, as well as purple. As a rule, flowers have a pharynx contrasting to the main staining. Ovaries are three-pronged. The small-sized seed box has an obovate shape and serves as a protection for numerous, dark brown, angularly-rounded seeds.

The best varieties

Highly decorative and relatively unpretentious varieties have become especially popular in our country., which can be grown year-round, and the flowering time may depend on the timing of planting the bulbs in the flower garden or flower pot.

ViewView characteristicVariety or hybrid formGrade description
Armstrong (Freesia armstrongii)Medium-sized species with scarlet, pink or red bell-shaped flowers collected in panicle inflorescences. The xiphoid foliage is long. Flowering during may-juneCardinalNon-double, medium-growing variety with three peduncles from one bulb and ten dark red, very attractive flowers
Hybrid (Freesia hybrida)Tall and highly branched plant with tassels consisting of large and fragrant, purple, raspberry, yellow, plain or two-tone flowers"Ballerina"White-flowered variety with corrugated petals. A dozen flowers gather in inflorescences, emitting a delicate and light, pleasant aroma
"Rose Marie"About seven flowers of bright raspberry color are collected in the inflorescence. The lower part of the flowers is white with a raspberry pattern.
PimperinaOn low peduncles there are inflorescences of seven flowers with corrugated, red petals that have a dark red border
White, or refracted, or broken (Freesia refracta)It is characterized by a miniature form, a thin stem part, paniculate spike-shaped inflorescences, collected from white or yellowish-orange flowersAlbaHas snow-white large flowers with a purple hatching
"Fragrant"Flowers of yellow coloration, collected in inflorescences, with a characteristic aroma of lily of the valley

In flower and garden shops, as well as in flower nurseries, not only popular, demanded varieties and hybrid forms of freesia are sold, but also ready-made varietal mixtures called "freesia-mix", which allows you to plant and grow quite easily a whole highly decorative collection of freesias that differ in shapes , sizes and coloring.

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How to prepare freesia bulbs for planting

Planting and Care Technology

Landing of freesia is carried out according to the technology of growing decorative culture. Plant bulbs should be planted after preliminary preparation, involving two hours of soaking in a weak solution based on potassium permanganate. If the planting material is of high quality and will be provided with the correct planting conditions, then it will be possible to obtain a highly decorative and abundantly flowering planting.

At home

Freesia can be planted in flower pots from April to July. In this case, flowering occurs in summer and autumn. When making an autumn planting, flowering is observed from January to April. A flower pot must necessarily have quality drainage holes.

It is allowed to grow several bulbs in one flower pot at once, placing them with a sharp end. Planting material should be buried approximately 5-6 cm into the soil represented by the finished nutrient soil mixture. If the diameter of the flower pot is about 15-17 cm, then in it you can grow a mixture of freesia-mix, consisting of five to six bulbs.

In the garden and greenhouse

Thermal preparation of freesia bulbs should be carried out in conditions of high humidity and high temperature conditions. Storage is carried out at a temperature of 10-12 ° C, so this pre-planting treatment by means of temperature differences helps to stimulate growth processes. For prophylactic purposes, treatment with a solution based on phytosporin or foundationazole is used for thirty minutes.

When planting garden forms, it is required to calculate the planting depth depending on the condition and type of soil. On lighter soils, the landing should be deeper. On light soil, the bulbs should be deepened by about 11-12 cm. On moderate soils, deepening is carried out by 8-10 cm. When planting in heavy soil, the bulbs can be deepened by no more than 5-6 cm.

Freesia prefer rich soil, based on compost with a small amount of sand for better drainage. It is important to note that in areas with cold climatic conditions, garden forms of freesia are grown in open ground with the obligatory digging of bulbs for the winter period. Hybrid freesias are grown with pot culture and are also brought into the room before winter.

Flower Care Rules

Caring for this decorative crop is easy enough even for beginner gardeners. Caring for the plant is required according to the established technology for cultivating freesia:

  • in winter, the light should be reduced, due to the plants at the stage of natural rest;
  • in the summer, the culture needs twelve-hour daylight, which will allow for plentiful and long flowering;
  • it is important to remember that adult plants need to provide support, which freesias especially need at the flowering stage;
  • systematic and moderate irrigation measures are carried out only after the topsoil has dried out;
  • for irrigation, it is recommended to use well-maintained and fairly warm water without increased hardness and excessive chlorine content;
  • when growing freesia, a plant needs to provide increased air humidity using fairly frequent spraying;
  • optimal is the winter placement of the plant in a cool place, which can be used as a glazed loggia or a fairly warm balcony;
  • mineral supplements need to be applied until the foliage dries out, with a regularity of twice a month.

After flowering, pruning of the stem and foliage is carried out. The bulb left for ripening needs to be watered for a month and a half, after which it is dug up, subjected to disinfection and drying, followed by storage until planting in a cool place.

Winter preparations

In most regions of our country, garden freesia is not able to winter in open groundTherefore, the ornamental plant needs to provide a dormant period with a sufficiently high temperature regime. After flowering and yellowing of the foliage, the freesia bulbs need to be dug up and thoroughly dried in a dry and fairly well-ventilated, warm room.

When drying the bulbs, the temperature regime should be approximately 23-25ABOUTC. Typically, the drying period is a week and a half, after which the freesia bulbs must be carefully sorted, cleaned and laid for winter storage. At the stage of winter storage, it is necessary to maintain air humidity at the level of 70-75%.

In order to ensure the safety of planting material in the storage, it is necessary to install containers filled with water. It is best to deal with the purchase of new planting material of garden freesia in the autumn period, since spring purchase is most often associated with the risk of acquiring insufficiently quality or improperly stored bulbs.

How to plant freesia in open ground

Propagation Features

Self-propagation of decorative culture is carried out by seed material or daughter bulbs. Seed propagation is carried out according to the following technology:

  • sowing seeds pretreated in a solution of potassium permanganate should be carried out from April to May in special planting containers filled with soil substrate or a mixture based on sod and leaf soil;
  • in the presence of the most favorable conditions, the first shoots appear about a month after sowing;
  • in order for young plants to grow stronger, it is necessary to provide the decorative culture at the initial stage of development with high-quality lighting, regular watering, weeding and fertilizing with fertilizers with a composition that includes potassium and phosphorus three times a month;

Dive seedlings to a permanent place you need after the plants reach a standard height and form a strong root system.

Propagation of freesia by daughter bulbs is the most convenient and easy way. Tuberous nodules can be stored without problems together with adult bulbs in sandboxes until March, after which planting material is planted in a permanent place in April or May. Seedlings that appear will require frequent hilling and watering.

Diseases and Pests

In horticultural conditions, freesia is quite often affected by aphids, spider mites and thrips, upon detection of which both folk remedies and modern insecticides are used. Freesia can also be affected by Fusarium, various rot and scab.

At the first sign of damage by rot or fusarium, the plant is treated with fungicides. Viral diseases are practically incurable, therefore it is recommended to destroy the affected plant. To reduce the risk of damage to the ornamental culture by pathogenic microflora and plant parasites, it is possible to observe agricultural practices.

Use cases

Freesia is a real decoration of almost any flower arrangement, and in modern floristry this ornamental plant is considered to be a real aristocrat, highly valued for its elegant forms and delicate, very pleasant aroma. Decorative culture is no less popular in landscape design, where in recent years it has been used more and more often.

Floristry

In modern floristry, hybrid freesia is widely used, characterized by a wide variety of shades of petals and coloring of inflorescences. Freesia is a great option for decorating wedding bouquets. This popular decorative look not only has a strong peduncle and decorative foliage, but also the flowers are perfectly preserved for about two weeks. Freesia successfully combines with orchids, callas and roses. Among other things, a huge color and varietal assortment of decorative freesia is available regardless of the season.

Landscape design

In landscape design, freesias are often used to decorate mixborders and as a complement to fragrant and spicy plants, which can be represented by chives, thyme, lavender or rosemary. The cultivation of curtains from freesia in areas devoid of the negative effects of drafts and gusty winds is very popular for lawns. Among other things, the decorative culture has established itself well when growing in flowerpots and decorating a patio, and in recent years freesia has been increasingly used to decorate rocky gardens and rock gardens.

Types and varieties of freesia

The main reasons for the popularity and demand for freesia are the availability of planting material, relative unpretentiousness, excellent external decorative data of the plant, as well as a stable and very pleasant aroma. The culture is perfect for indoor floriculture, as well as for landscaping personal plots, as well as creating thematic decorative compositions.

Pot transplant

Growing freesia in indoor floriculture is carried out in order to obtain flowering in the winter-spring period. Before planting, the bulbs are soaked in a warm solution based on "Azotobacterin" for ½ hour. It is allowed to process planting material with growth stimulants, for example, Epina or Kornevin solution.

At the bottom of the flower pot, drain with charcoal. Then the tank is filled with a soil mixture based on sand, sod and humus soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. It is advisable to add a small amount of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.

About five bulbs can be planted in a standard flower pot with a diameter of 15-20 cm, deepening them by 5 or 6 cm. Next, the pot should be placed in a cool place with a temperature regime of 12-15 ° C. After the leaves appear, the container with freesia should be transferred to a bright and warm room. Further care is to maintain the temperature at 20-22 ° C and regular watering. Planting a plant in a permanent place in open ground should be in the spring, after stable warm weather is established.





Planting freesia in open flower beds

The cultivation of freesia in the open field begins with a properly carried out planting. In most cases, amateur gardeners use the preliminary germination of bulbs in flower pots, followed by planting young plants in a permanent place in the open ground. As a rule, planting a garden crop is not difficult, but in order to get a healthy and plentifully flowering plant, The following rules must be followed:

  • germination of a flower bulb suggests the presence of soil warmed by the sun and a steady temperature of at least 16-18 ° C;
  • preplant planting of the bulbs consists in pre-soaking in a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate for one and a half hours;
  • planted planting material should be planted after the threat of damage to the bulbs by spring return frosts has passed;
  • optimal is growing in areas represented by soddy soil with the addition of coarse sand and peat crumbs;

  • the soil of the flower garden should be sufficiently moisture permeable, as well as maximally loose and nutritious;
  • for each square meter of the landing area, it is recommended to add 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt and about 30-40 g of bone meal;
  • it is very important to provide the culture with a high-quality drainage layer in the form of a brick battle with the addition of charcoal;
  • relatively abundant irrigation measures are carried out before the emergence of sprouts, after which moisture should be increased;
  • in the daytime, the air temperature should be 18-19ºС, and at night it is allowed to lower the temperature to 14-16ºС;
  • in order to prevent damage to young plants by spring late frosts, it is recommended to use a film cover.


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