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The blind area is a typical protection of the foundation of any structure from moisture and freezing, therefore, its arrangement is considered mandatory. Today we will study everything related to the installation of the blind areas: types, installation, insulation and other points.
Installation of the blind area around the country house or outbuildings - A common process for a builder who equips his cottage correctly. But for an ordinary summer resident who is constantly engaged in gardening and horticultural activities, this process may seem complicated. Somehow we already touched on the blind area when we talked about repairing the basement, but then we only mentioned this process, practically without going into details. Today, experts decided to conduct a real excursion on the topic, and therefore we present an article from which you will learn everything about installing the blind area, its types, arrangement and even insulation and decoration.
Where in the country you may need a blind area
A blind area is needed near every capital, and even a small building, to protect its foundation and create a special slope for the flow of water. Its purpose is not at all exaggerated, since this layer, created from bulk materials and concrete, and sometimes additional compositions, shows a high degree of protection of the building foundation. Due to this, the soil does not get wet and does not freeze, and the foundation remains intact for many years. Accordingly, you do not spend money on repairing the basement and do not worry about the fact that over time the walls of the house will begin to burst due to constant exposure to moisture.
The functions of the blind area and its tasks are obvious, but we decided to recall them:
- The decorative task of the blind area is to give the territory, or rather, a narrow strip around the house, a more aesthetic and complete look. For decorating this area, concrete, stone, pebbles, paving slabs, other materials are used;
- The protective function of the blind area is to limit the destructive effects of surface water, melt and rain, which can cause significant harm to the foundation of any building;
- The thermal insulation task of the blind area is to prevent freezing of the soil near the foundation of the building. Due to this, the impact on the foundation is minimized, as well as the heat loss of the building, into which a large amount of cold penetrates through the floor as standard;
- The blind area also prevents soil swelling, which is possible due to interaction with frost. Thus, there will be no displacement of the soil layers, and therefore, no pressure on certain areas of the foundation.
The blind area is recommended immediately after the construction of the house, but it happens that its installation occurs much later. This fact is very important, although, as they say better late than never.
Necessary characteristics blind area near the house
It often happens that the master seriously saves on materials and free time, due to which the blind area is only 40-50 cm wide. This is very wrong, because the minimum recommended width of the blind area is 60 cm. You can make it much larger, under 90-100 cm, then the protection will be effective, and the blind area can also be used as a pedestrian walkway around the building.
It is also important to consider how far the eaves and ebbs recede from the house. Often they are made wide enough so that water from the roof does not pour on the walls. But this means only one thing - the width of the blind area will need to be increased, because according to the instructions it should be at least 20-25 cm wide more than the eaves.
At this stage, I would like to recall the drainage systems that protect not only the walls, but also the blind area of the house. Consider the option of a system for properly removing water from the roof, and thus you can save the blind area that we are building today for a longer period.
Mandatory requirements are considered to be the finishing of the zone around the building along the entire perimeter, preferably with expansion joints, expansion joints, a thickness of up to 20-30 cm, a slope for the outflow of surface water.
Remember that in addition to the blind area, you need to think about waterproofing the foundation, which is very important for its protection !!!
The device blinds around the country house
Each stage of this process must be fully observed, because only strict adherence to the instructions and technology for laying the blind area can give the desired result. Standard savings on the process, performance of work irresponsibly or ineptly, can lead to a decrease in the role of the blind area and a significant minimization of its basic protective functions.
You can perform many types of blind areas around the country house, as we said above, but today we decided to talk about the simplest form - concrete blind area. We will leave stone, tile and pebbles for more expensive projects.
Be sure to mark it out - with threads and flags mark the height above the ground, the width of the blind area, its even distance from the walls of the house, so that by the end you do not get a curve fill. This is even more necessary if the blind area will act as a pedestrian path.
Preparation of soil under the blind area
A very important process that you can start even after the completion of the zero cycle of building a house. But it often happens that the blind area is flooded at a time when the main summer house is already a couple of decades old, and therefore we will talk about soil preparation in such conditions.
It is imperative to remove the plant layer, at least 20-25 cm, so that the blind area is really high-quality. So, the depth is 25 cm, and the width is 90 cm, the maximum cutting down of the roots and high-quality cleaning of the soil evenly in this area.
It is very desirable to compact the soil well and let it settle for at least a day or two so that it has a minimum of looseness before the blind area.
Layer of sand for the blind area
It is necessary to put a layer of sand 10 cm thick into the recess and carefully compact it with a special machine. If there is none, you can organize several people and arrange a long smoke break, for example, in 30-40 minutes, until people just wander monotonously around the perimeter and trample the sand. This is very important for the quality of the process.
For faster and more accurate compaction, the sand layer can be slightly moistened, but try to do this so that no mud porridge forms in the recess under the formation of the blind area.
Formwork blind areas of a country house
Formwork should be made of boards and correctly, strictly in size, fixed around the perimeter. You can emphasize directly to the foundation of the building and the wall around the perimeter of the recess. The main thing is that the formwork can withstand the pressure of materials and not crumble.
For its production, you can even take construction waste (old boards and beams), but it is advisable to use high-quality formwork, which will increase reliability.
The formwork will also help create temperature seams along the coating, if after its construction the perpendicular parts are left inside. This will make it possible to prevent cracking of the coating in the future. In addition, such joints every 3-6 meters will remove the load from concrete slabs, which we decided to fill, and they will not crack due to the movement of soil layers or drainage.
Crushed stone filling
We are well acquainted with this material, as we often use it in the country for decoration, track repair, construction of various buildings, dumping. Therefore, we will not talk about its positive qualities and use in the country, but simply say that this is the best material for creating a drainage layer.
The layer of crushed stone will be about 10 cm, and we will use material of different fractions here. Tamping the same crushed stone is almost impossible, and therefore we will mix different-fraction crushed stone to make this process more simple and successful. Also, it is with crushed stone that we will set the desired slope of the blind area, up to 2-3%, to ensure that water flows over the surface of the finishing or just the main material. You can set the angle with the concrete itself, and the angle is slightly larger, but much better when the slope of the blind area is ready initially!
Reinforcement mesh laying
We hope that we do not need to talk about the purpose of the reinforcing mesh. Therefore, we simply install it around the perimeter before pouring the concrete mixture. It will give us the opportunity to remove excess pressure, compensate for the load and even create the rigidity of a single canvas, and therefore you can not forget about the grid!
Expansion joint device
We decided to devote a whole section of the article to the expansion joint, since many simply forget about it. This should not be done, because for the light of various factors, it is possible to affect the foundation and the coating being prepared. If the contact of the base and the blind areas is made rigid, at some point, under the influence of external factors, pressure on the foundation and its destruction are possible. The opposite effect is also possible when, due to such contact, cracks will go along the surface.
Therefore, it is necessary to arrange a seam for free running, which will certainly happen with time. Its width should be 1-1.5 cm, and this will be enough. Before pouring concrete on the drainage layer and the mesh, it is necessary to determine this seam and lay it with polystyrene foam. It can be left or poured with bitumen on top, also such a seam can be taken out after the concrete has dried, and sprinkled the cavity with sand, followed by pouring bitumen or putty with mastic. There are many ways, and even several layers of an ordinary roofing material will do.
Fill and align the blind area
We want to remind you about temperature seams or just parts of the formwork, which can serve as a kind of beacons of level and slope of the surface. Pay special attention to them. If the tree remains in the blind area, pre-treat it with antiseptic agents!
We need high-quality concrete, and therefore we work with cement, sand, and maybe even special additives, depending on requirements and weather conditions. For mixing, you can use a home-made concrete mixer or a trough, if the amount of concrete is small, and there is no special equipment at hand. Concrete is poured onto the surface of crushed stone and mesh, we compact and create a slope, the concrete layer is up to 10 cm. If the slope of the blind area is not created on the crushed stone, you can act in another way - using a shovel, and then the trowel, lay the layers unevenly, the layer is thicker near the wall and the layer is thinner at the opposite edge.
Full drying of concrete lasts more than 20 days, and therefore do not walk prematurely on the blind area. But to protect concrete from cracking in the heat is possible, and even necessary. To do this, its surface is periodically moistened and covered with a dense plastic film!
If you make a blind area with insulation
The blind area with insulation is a moot point, since a violation of the technology will not produce a result, but will only lead to a rise in the cost of the process.
You can insulate the blind area with high-strength polystyrene foam, laying it under the screed, or by spraying polyurethane foam. The blind area covered with this material is able to prevent freezing of the soil and the entry of cold to the foundation, and, accordingly, inside the room.
Warming of the blind areas is a rather delicate question, and therefore, if you need to find out the details of this process, ask your questions in a special section of the site - Answers to questions.
If the blind area is finished
There are many types of finishing coatings near the house or other summer cottages, and as decorative material can be granite, natural stone, pebbles, paving stones, special decorative concrete or paving slabs. Any of these materials is laid on top of a concrete screed according to its own laying technology, and therefore it is also worth talking about each of these processes strictly individually.
The correct device blind areas at home (video)
Installation of the blind area, its types, device and purpose - An interesting topic that we have allocated enough time today. We can only hope that you will be able to make the blind area of the country house with your own hands in order to protect the foundation and the base with the highest quality. We recommend reading the article - block house (imitation of logs).