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After the autumn harvest, gardeners each year have the question of keeping vegetables and fruits fresh for as long as possible. A variety of harvesting vegetables is, of course, very popular in our country and stored for a very long time, but you always want to keep the taste and color of the summer not only under the lid.
The main ways
There are several ways to preserve the natural freshness of vegetables and fruits, as well as the taste and all useful, vitamin properties for as long as possible. The choice of method depends not only on the type of garden products, but also on the volume of stored crops, as well as the financial and household capabilities of the gardener. It should be noted that it is necessary to properly store not only the crop that was personally grown in summer, but also fruits and vegetables bought in the store.
So, for a long time, all vitamins and fruits and vegetables retain their original appearance when used:
- cellar or basement;
- a glazed balcony or loggia;
- refrigerator or domestic freezer.
It must be remembered that vegetables and fruits are best stored in dry and cool, dark rooms, because under the influence of light biological processes continue to occur in the products, worsening their taste and increasing the risk of aging and spoilage.
Secrets for different types of vegetables
Of course, it is necessary to select for storage for the winter only high-quality vegetables and fruits that do not have signs of damage, over-ripening and damage by pathogenic microflora. But, there are some secrets of long-term storage, due to the botanical and varietal characteristics of the products:
|View||Botanical features||Temperature mode||Humidity indicators||Recommendations|
|Potatoes||Late-ripening varieties are better preserved.||+ 2-3 ° C||80-90%||After drying, the tubers must be sorted and stored in special, ventilated containers or boxes no more than a meter high.|
|Carrot||Preference should be given to storing mid-season and late varieties.||+ 1-2 ° C||85-90%||Root crops need to be thoroughly cleaned of dirt, removing tops and two-day drying in the sun, and then stored in boxes, sprinkled with sawdust, leaves of mountain ash or sand. Storage in a clay cocoon is allowed|
|Beet||Preference should be given to storing mid-season and late varieties.||+ 2-3 ° C||85-95%||Trim the tops at a height of a couple of centimeters, clean the root crops from the remains of the soil and dry a couple of days in the shade in the wind. Storage in tightly closed wooden boxes with a capacity of up to 20 kg, with interlayers of a mixture of sand and chalk or dry slaked lime.|
|Cabbage||Mid-ripe, mid-late or late ripe cabbage is stored for the longest time.||-1 to + 1 ° C|
|90-95%||After selecting the strongest and densest heads of cabbage, you need to store the cabbage on clean and dry shelves, laying the head to the head, or suspended from the roots to the ceiling.|
|Garlic and onion||You can store almost all varieties, but there are the most suitable for long-term storage.||+ 1-5 ° C||75-80%.||Weave the aerial part of onions and garlic after thorough drying with braids and hang from the ceiling. Storage in special breathable bags, also suspended from the ceiling, is allowed|
|Stone fruits||Apricots, plums, peaches, cherry plum, quince are stored no more than three to six weeks.||About 0 ° C||About 75%.||Place the dried fruits in well-ventilated boxes, carefully transfer them with paper or plain paper napkins.|
For long-term storage of greens, it is best to dry it. Well-stored and frozen green crops are placed in vacuum bags, which allows you to use them for several seasons and cook very fragrant first courses.
Special requirements apply to the storage of such a vegetable crop as a cucumber:
- a good way of long-term storage is the use of plastic bags with holes for ventilation;
- when using polyethylene, vegetable products must be stored in the refrigerator, in the vegetable compartment;
- in order to prevent the formation of rot, it is recommended to put in a bag with cucumbers a small piece of horseradish or a few cloves of peeled garlic.
You can not use one container with fruits that produce ethanol, including apples and bananas, to store cucumbers. In a dry basement, cucumbers retain their external qualities and nutritional properties for a month. In this case, the harvested crop should be laid in layers in enameled dishes, sprinkled with sand.
How to keep vegetables fresh
Cellar storage principles
Vegetables and fruits are stored as long as possible in the cellar or basement. But, It is very important to carry out the correct preparation of the premises for laying the crop for long-term winter storage:
- the vegetable store is required to be thoroughly cleaned from vegetable debris last year's crop;
- thoroughly rinse all racks and shelves, having previously removed all the cans and boxes for storing the crop;
- crates and jars should be thoroughly washed with hot water with the addition of baking soda and liquid soap, after which it is well dried;
- disinfection of shelving and containers with lime gives a good result;
- it is recommended to treat the walls and all surfaces in the cellar intended for storing vegetables or fruits with a 10% solution based on copper sulfate;
- You can replace the solution of copper sulfate with a solution based on bleach, diluted at a rate of 400 g per 10 liters. water;
- after chemical treatment, the vegetable storehouse should be thoroughly ventilated and dried;
- the final step in preparing the vegetable storehouse for laying vegetable products is to whitewash wooden structures with a mixture prepared using 1.5 kg of freshly slaked lime and adding 15 g of iron sulfate diluted in 5 l of warm water.
It is very important to protect the stored crop from rodents, so all ventilation openings must be provided with protective grilles.
Features of storage in the apartment and on the balcony
If necessary, keep the harvest in the apartment, you should give preference to cool and dark places. As a rule, vegetable products are stored quite well on a balcony or loggia with glazing. It is easiest to place pre-prepared, dried and sorted vegetables and fruits in wooden or plastic crateson the bottom of which a layer of absorbent material in the form of cardboard or fabric should be laid.
Nevertheless, in recent years, the so-called thermal boxes or thermal boxes have been especially popular, which are equipped with special mechanisms to maintain temperature indicators that are optimal for preserving the crop, regardless of external weather factors. High-quality modern thermal box can independently control the temperature conditions inside with an error of up to 2aboutFROM, but more budget options are also available, providing for the implementation of manual regulation of the storage temperature.
Thermoboxing can be made independently, using the following recommendations:
- make a box of the required size with double walls from any lumber, including plywood or chipboard;
- the space between the walls should be at least 5-7 cm;
- fill the space with expanded polystyrene or mineral wool;
- arrange around the wooden structure an insulating casing of thermostatic action;
- supplement the lower part of the thermal box with legs of at least 10 cm high;
- install the thermal box on the floor previously insulated with plywood and polystyrene,
- equip the upper part of the container for storing vegetable products with a tight-fitting removable lid.
At the final stage, it is necessary to install several conventional lamps inside the thermal box with a power of 15 watts, connecting them to a thermal relay or a ready-made thermostat. When storing vegetables in a thermal box, the following temperature indicators should be adhered to:
- Beetroot - 2-3 ºC;
- Red cabbage - about 0 ºC;
- Pumpkin - 5-8 ºC;
- Zucchini - 4-10 ºC;
- Sweet bell pepper - 10-12 ºC;
- Horseradish - about 0 ºC;
- Tomatoes - about 10-15 ºC;
- Jerusalem artichoke - 2-4 ºC;
How to store in the refrigerator
The refrigerator allows you to create optimal conditions for preserving fruits, vegetables and herbs. But, Before laying the crop for storage in the refrigerator, it is necessary to perform a number of preparatory measures:
- sort and rinse thoroughly all leafy vegetables, then remove the spoiled leaves and put the products in pre-prepared, clean and dry containers;
- greens must be sorted out, washed thoroughly, put on a paper towel to remove excess moisture and pack in containers;
- vegetables should be peeled and cut into slices, after which it can be stored in a fruit box with foil and frozen in a freezer;
- it is also recommended to freeze for a long period vegetable mixtures obtained during the processing or slicing of carrots, onions, green peas, corn, bell peppers, beets, zucchini and eggplant;
- it should be remembered that it is most convenient to store chopped or grated vegetables separately, in small portions, which will allow them to be used as necessary for several seasons.
How to keep tomatoes fresh
The ideal option is to use vacuum containers in which even perishable greens retain freshness for at least a week. Periodically, it is necessary to review the entire stored crop and remove vegetables that are spoiled or suspicious for rot damage.