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Marigolds are habitual for all the inhabitants of flower beds and flower beds. These guests from Central and South America became native to flower lovers at least a hundred years ago, and are incredibly widespread in culture. They are lovingly called a maroon, a black-browed man, and in some places they have been given the name Imereti saffron. Currently, breeders have created more than two hundred varieties that differ not only in the color and structure of inflorescences, but also in the shape and structure of leaf blades, as well as the height of the bush.
The main advantage of these plants is their unpretentiousness and ability to withstand most diseases and pests. Moreover, Marigolds can defend against them not only themselves, but also the green neighbors growing in the neighborhood. Under their protection, you can safely give beautifully flowering summers, and green crops, and most of the vegetables.
Types and varieties of marigolds
In culture, three species are quite widespread:
- African, or tagetright, powerful tall plants with huge inflorescences of various colors and shapes;
- French, or rejected tagetes, are of medium or low height bushes, studded with fragrant inflorescences of various shapes and colors. They are distinguished by the highest frost resistance of all marigolds.
- Mexican, or thin-leaved Chernobrivtsi, are thermophilic plants in the form of spreading openwork bushes dotted with small inflorescences in the form of daisies.
How to Sow Marigolds
Based on these three varieties, several hundred different varieties of annual and perennial plants with different characteristics were created. From this variety of shapes and colors, you can build almost any composition in the garden in a prim style, or place these charming creatures in the country or even in the apartment, putting them in a suitable pot. In a word, it is difficult to find brighter, more useful and yet unpretentious plants than velvet.
The most popular varieties of floriculture Tagetes are considered to be the following:
|Grade name||Belonging to the species||Description|
|Kilimanjaro||Upright / African||Rare in beauty, a bush of very high growth, strewn with numerous white densely terry balls of inflorescences, the diameter of which reaches 10 cm|
|Popsicle||Upright / African||Medium-sized bushes up to 40 cm tall with small double inflorescences, snow-white in color, the diameter of which often reaches 7-10 cm|
|Bolero||Upright / African||Bushes up to 40 cm high, compact and very dense. Flowers - orange terry baskets, with a beautiful border and touches of lemon color, with a diameter of not more than 12 cm|
|Sonnenschein (sun flare)||Upright / African||Relatively low branched bushes up to 45 cm tall. Inflorescences semi-double, lemon yellow|
|Vilmorin||Rejected / French||Bushes with a height of no more than 25 cm. Semi-double inflorescences very unusual in shape, which resemble bows in their appearance. Coloring - very bright, yellow|
|Cherry bracelet||Rejected / French||A typical bush for its appearance, which begins to surprise after blooming buds painted in deep red color, eventually acquiring a rich cherry hue|
|Taishan||Rejected / French||One of the most fragrant varieties among medium-sized. Saturated anise aroma comes from lacy, intense yellow terry flowers, the shape of which resembles a ballet tutu|
|Red brocade||Rejected / French||Medium-sized marigolds with a height of 20 to 25 cm. Bloom with pretty red semi-double baskets, the petals of which have a nice soft wavy|
|Harlequin||Rejected / French||Srednerosly typical type of bushes with a height of not more than 45 cm. Of particular value are flowers, painted in yellow and dark orange, and which appear striped|
|Lulu||Thin Leaf / Brazilian||Openwork bushes with a height of not more than 40 cm, completely covered with yellow daisy inflorescences, the diameter of which rarely exceeds 2 cm|
|Paprika||Thin Leaf / Brazilian||Elegant spherical bushes reach 45 cm in height. They bloom bright yellow or orange-red inflorescences with a red center, which emit a very intense aroma|
|Mimimix||Thin Leaf / Brazilian||Charming lace and fragrant plants from 15 to 40 cm high. Inflorescences are simple, of various colors and shades - from almost white to rich red|
The use of marigolds in landscape design
Marigolds are widely used in landscape design. They can decorate the garden in a classic European style, taking curbs under them or covering them with bald spots among other pilots. With such residents, alpine hills, rockeries, rabatki and mixborders noticeably come to life. And if you plant them beautifully on the lawn, combining several varieties in color and height, you will get a peculiar floral mosaic that will bloom all summer, and even in late autumn.
In bordering marigolds, the patio or veranda looks a whole new way, especially if you plant tall varieties of plants closer to the walls of the buildings and place low varieties in the direction of the paths. It is good to border them with garden paths.
Tagetes is also suitable for revitalizing covered verandas, gazebos and other summer rooms, which must be aired throughout the day. In the case of landscaping of such premises, it is recommended to plant flowers in pots, in beautiful flower pots or flowerpots decorated with raw clay, decorated with stones. The ideal version of the container is a "broken vase."
A feature of saffron is the creation of bright, but at the same time unobtrusive color highlights that look like sunbeams. Even in cloudy weather, the gardens decorated with marigolds look as though the rays of the sun are falling on them.
Marigolds are very easy to breed, since they reproduce by seed. Moreover, it is not at all necessary to buy them every year, because after the flowering of the favorite variety begins, it is enough to simply collect seed baskets from the bushes, dry them well and leave them to plant for next spring.
Planting seeds in open ground begins mainly in the spring, after the threat of frost has passed. In addition, you can grow seedlings for its subsequent placement on the flowerbed and earlier flowering.
Interesting fact! Most modern varieties of marigold are hybrids, so plants obtained by seed propagation can differ significantly from their parent specimens. Such flowers look very unusual, and often make even experienced breeders wonder.
Planting seeds in the ground
Marigold seeds are planted in the ground dry or sprouted.
- In the first case, furrows with a depth of about 2-3 cm are made on the prepared bed, they are shed with water, and then seeds are placed in them at a distance of about 5 cm from each other. You can sprinkle them with soil from the beds or peat.
- In the second case, the seeds are pre-soaked for 10 minutes, and then placed on a flat saucer, covered with a damp cloth. After 2-3 days, rootlets sprout. After that, the seeds are carefully sown according to the same scheme as described above.
Sowing seeds in the soil is recommended to start in mid-May, when the soil is sufficiently warmed up. In Siberia and the Urals, crops need to be covered with non-woven material for 2 weeks, since late frosts on the soil occur in these latitudes.
After the seedlings grow and form 2-3 real leaves, they need to be thinned out, leaving 15-20 cm in a row between the undersized specimens and the same number in the aisles. For medium-tall and tall varieties, the intervals between plants need to be increased to 30-40 cm.
To obtain early flowering, marigold is propagated by seedlings. To do this, 1-1.5 months before the intended planting in the soil, the seeds are sown in separate pots or seedlings. Important to rememberthat low-growing varieties require less time for development, therefore, they are sown for seedlings later, and tall varieties are sown earlier.
For growing seedlings, a mixture of sod land (1 part), humus (1 part), peat (1 part) is suitable. Additionally, you can add 0.5 parts of sand to the resulting mixture. Before sowing seeds, the soil is shed with any fungicide, and drainage is arranged at the bottom of seedlings.
When planting in separate pots with a diameter of not more than 4 cm, no more than 2 seeds are placed in each. When sowing in boxes, the distance between the seeds is 2 x 2 cm.
It is quite simple to look after seedlings:
- regularly watered with settled water;
- maintain the temperature at the level of 18-21 degrees;
- ventilate crops.
When planting in a common capacity, seedlings with the appearance of 2-3 real leaves dive into separate pots. After a dive, marigolds take about 2 weeks, after which they will be ready to move to open ground. It is recommended to do this in late May, when the soil warms up, and the threat of freezing frost is over.
Low-growing (curb) Chernobrivs are planted at a distance of about 15 cm from each other, medium-sized - at a distance of 15-20 cm, tall - at a distance of up to 45 cm.
To grow these flowers successfully, you need to place them in a lighted area. Of course, this culture tolerates shading well, but in the light the bushes grow more lush, and more flower stalks are formed on them. Any soil is suitable, but the most lush flowering is observed on fertile loams.
Marigolds should be watered abundantly and regularly, however, care must be taken to ensure that the soil remains sufficiently permeable to air. It will depend on the level of humidity how much marigolds bloom: with waterlogging, the inflorescences can decay. If this happens, you need to immediately cut off the damaged baskets and remove them from the site.
Plants need to be fed only when a plot with depleted or sandy soil is reserved for planting. In order to ensure abundant and long-term flowering, it is recommended to apply complex fertilizer under the flowers, as well as organic matter - rotted weed compost, mowed and dried siderata in the form of mulch.
Diseases and Pests
Marigolds are practically not affected by gnawing pests, viral and bacterial diseases, therefore their treatment for all kinds of infections is not required. Meanwhile, during a prolonged drought, spider mites may attack the plantings. To get rid of it, it is recommended to use a solution of colloidal sulfur, or to smoke flowers with the same sulfur in the form of a checker. In wet periods, marigolds are attacked by slugs. To scare them away from planting, you need to place between the plants a bowl with bleach.
Marigolds: cultivation features
The cultivation of marigolds is a grateful occupation, which in 99% of cases fully pays for the costs of manpower and resources. These magnificent flowers can decorate every corner of the garden, bringing bright colors to it. In addition, marigolds will guard the health of plants that are planted next to them.