Cherry A to Z: From Variety Selection to Disease Protection

Cherry A to Z: From Variety Selection to Disease Protection

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Cherry (Cerasus) - a small bush or tree with thin branches and a spherical crown. The fruiting of the plant is active, the fruits are round, sweet and sour.

Biological characteristics of the plant

The fruiting of cherries begins in the third year. A good harvest from the tree can be expected from the fifth year. All varieties of plants are divided into:

  • tree-like
  • bushy.

The latter are distinguished by the fact that their skeletal branches are quickly exposed. Fruiting is mainly on the growth of the previous year.

Popular varieties of culture

Before you start growing cherries, you should decide on the choice of variety. Most often, gardeners use the Ordinary variety, characterized by sweet fruits and good fruiting. When choosing between varieties, one should pay attention to such plant qualities as productivity, exacting care, and drought tolerance.

Early ripe varieties

If you want to get an early harvest, it is recommended to pay attention to early ripe varieties. Their fruiting begins in early July. Early ripe varieties are also distinguished by the fact that they develop quickly and have good productivity. The most popular varieties of the presented type are indicated in the table.

Grade nameMain characteristicsFruit qualityResistant to frost, disease and pests
"In memory of Yenikeyev"Srednerosloe tree with an oval crown, leafy medium. The variety is obtained from the varieties "Korinka" and "Zhukovskaya"Large, dessert flavorMedium stability
"Sania" (Saniya)The result of crossing varieties "Bagryanaya" and "Vladimirskaya". Medium-sized plant 3 meters tall, crown shape - ballMedium sized, with sourness, suitable for fresh consumption and for preparationGood stability
Delight (Vostorg)From the bush, about 10 kilograms of berries are obtained. The tree is the result of a cross between a variety of "Twinkle" and a mixture of pollenFruits are large, oval, juicyOften struck by monilia
"Pink bottle" (Prunus cerasus)Productivity - up to 10 kilograms, grows throughout RussiaBerry weight - 3 grams, fruits are suitable for processing and fresh consumptionGood winter hardiness
Amorel NikiforovnaTree cherry ripening in mid-June, grows in RussiaThe fruits have a sour taste, red colorTolerates winter well
"Early English"An old variety, was bred in England, the tree is small in height, the crown is narrow pyramidalBerries do not crumble when ripe, redHeat demanding
"Expectation"Low tree requiring artificial pollinationMedium sized berriesProne to fruit rot

Mid-season varieties

Mid-ripening varieties have an average ripening period (from mid-July). They are great for growing in Central Russia.

Grade nameMain characteristicsFruit qualityResistant to frost, disease and pests
Youth (Cerasus Molodezhnaya)The result of the crossing of the varieties "Vladimirskaya" and "Lyubskaya", up to 2.5 meters high, drooping crownOval, weighing up to 4.5 grams, sweet and sourFrost-resistant variety, prone to coccomycosis and moniliosis
"Turgenevka" (Turgenevka)Tree height up to 3 meters, back pyramidal crownFruits are dark red, large, up to 5 grams, small seedsHigh winter hardiness, medium resistance to diseases and pests
"Hope" (Nadezdha)Tree height up to 6 meters, round crown, medium leaf

Fruits are large (6 grams), dark red, sweet with a slight acidity

Good winter hardiness and disease resistance
"Vladimirskaya" (Vladimirskaya)The ancient variety, common in the Vladimir region, has the shape of a bush, round crownThe fruits are small, up to 3.7 grams, the color is almost black, the taste is sourHe tolerates frosts, often suffers from diseases
ZhukovskayaGrows up to 2.5 meters, a rare crownDeep red juicy fruitsMedium Disease Resistance
Kharitonovskaya (Haritonovskaya)Medium in height, partial autonomyBright red berries with sourness, seeds separate well, medium in sizeMedium stability
"Morozovka" (Morozovka)Medium-sized tree with a lush crown, blooms in springBerries weighing up to 5.4 grams, dessert flavor, suitable for preservation and fresh consumptionDrought-resistant and disease-resistant variety
Moscow Griot (Griot moskovskii)A tree with a spherical crown of medium size, requires pollinatorsBerries of sour taste, dark color, from one hundred square meters you can get up to a ton of harvestNot afraid of frost, disease resistance is average

Late ripening varieties

Later cherries begin to ripen in August. They are great for canning and eating fresh. Most late varieties are winter hardy.

Grade nameMain characteristicsFruit qualityResistant to frost, disease and pests
"Apukhtinskaya" (Apuhtinskaya)It is a clone of the Lotovaya variety, grows in the Tula region, height is up to 3 meters, the crown is leafyThe berries are round, dark red, weighing up to 3.5 gramsWinter hardiness is average, can be affected by coccomycosis
BolotovskayaBred by Bolotov, reaches a height of 2 meters, the crown is spreadingFruits are round, small, weighing 2.5 grams, sweet and sourWinter hardiness is good, can be affected by coccomycosis
"Vakhitovskaya" (Vahitovskaya)The crown is well leafy, the height of the tree is 1.5 metersFruits are small, dark red, weighing up to 2 gramsResistant to diseases and pests, tolerates frosts well
"Gorkovskaya" (Gorkovskaya)Pyramidal crown, multi-stem bush, height up to 3 metersThe fruits are small, dark red, harmonious tasteWinter hardiness is good, cherry is slightly susceptible to disease
Korostynskaya (Korostynskaya)Suitable for cultivation in the Nizhny Novgorod region, height up to 4 meters, medium-leaf crownFruits are small, up to 2.5 grams, tart, dark redGood frost resistance, moderate disease resistance
LotovayaThe crown is drooping, the height of the tree is up to 2.5 meters, fruiting on annual branchesFruits are acidic, roundish, weighing up to 4 gramsResistance to diseases is average, branches can be affected by frost
"Lyubskaya" (Lyubskaya)The tree reaches a height of 2.5 meters, the crown is drooping, fruiting on annual branchesThe berries are large, red, with acidityMay be affected by coccomycosis; severe frosts

The subtleties of landing

Even good care will not guarantee that it will be possible to grow a cherry tree if some details were not observed when planting. When conducting this procedure, the following rules should be observed:

  1. Only varieties suitable for your region can be planted.
  2. You should choose only high-quality seedlings with a well-developed root system.
  3. The best time for landing is mid-April.
  4. The place should be located on a hill and be sunny.
  5. The soil for the tree should be light, loamy or loamy, fertile.

Culture Care Features

The main care work is loosening the soil, watering, feeding, pruning, and protecting against pests. Fertilizers are applied in the fall. In summer, weeds should be removed near the bush.

How to fertilize

Fertilizing under a cherry tree is recommended in the fall. As a top dressing, bird droppings, manure, compost can act. In some cases, mineral supplements developed specifically for fruit trees can be applied.

In the process of loosening the soil, you can add potash and phosphate fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilization is carried out in spring. Do not add nitrogen in the fall.

Watering Rules

The plant does not require constant and plentiful watering. Introducing moisture under the bush is recommended during the ripening of the fruit. Also, the tree should be watered immediately after harvesting. The last watering is carried out until October 20 and is called winter. About 7 buckets of water are introduced under each tree.

How to form a crown

The optimal options for the shape of the crown are flattened, sparse-tiered, spindle-shaped. You can form a crown in the following ways:

  • thinning;
  • shortening.

The thinning method involves the removal of shoots and branches on the ring and the whole. As a result, the crown becomes smaller in diameter and transmits light and air well, which contributes to the development of berries.

The shortening method involves trimming branches whose length exceeded 40 centimeters. The purpose of the work is to stimulate the formation of new branches.

Cherry: care features (video)

Rules for growing a cherry tree

Almost all cherries are self-infertile. This means that pollinator plants should be planted next to them.

A large role is played by the choice of a place for a tree. Fruiting a plant for 15 years is possible if it was planted in a bright place.

The occurrence of groundwater at the location of the tree should not be higher than one and a half meters.

How to improve tree growth

You can improve cherry growth by various methods.

  • To obtain a sufficient amount of carbohydrates by a plant, cherries should be planted in a sunny place.
  • Limestone must be present in the soil.
  • To reduce acidity, manure is introduced into the soil.
  • When planting a seedling in a pit, it is recommended to place pieces of concrete.
  • Fertilizers are applied weakly concentrated and in small quantities.
  • Next to cherries, only friendly plants should be planted.
  • Be sure to place a pollinator plant next to the cherry.
  • Timely pruning is of great importance.

Following all these recommendations at the same time gives the best result.

The importance of spraying plantings

So that the cherry does not hurt, it should be treated with special preparations. To prevent coccomycosis (Coccomyces) spraying with antifungal agents is used. From moniliosis (Moniliasis) Helps Nitrafen (Nitrafen). Aphid protection (Myzus cerasi)sawfly (Symphyta) and moth shoot (Argyresthia pruniella) carried out by means of "Corado" (Corrado) and spark (Iskra).

How to protect a tree from frost

Protect the tree from frost should be at the planting stage. To do this, the cherry is placed on a plot with a slope of 45 degrees. You can build a fence of roofing material near the plant. To do this, a groove is dug around the tree, stakes are inserted into it, and then the roofing material is pulled.

Quality sun protection

There are many ways to protect cherries from the sun. Among the most popular are the following:

  1. In the fall, whitewashing of tree trunks is carried out.
  2. You can tie the trunks of seedlings with newspapers or white paper in several layers.
  3. In winter, the trunk can be tied with roofing material, and wrap with light foil on top.
  4. As protection in the winter, snow, tops of tomatoes and potatoes, boards can be used.

Two ways to propagate cherries

Reproduction of the plant does not cause problems, for the gardener, minimal knowledge about selection is enough for this. There are 2 main methods of reproduction - vegetative and seed.

Vegetative propagation of a tree

The easiest way is propagation by shoots. You can get it from any tree. It is better to take a stalk in the spring. Before planting a seedling, the cut is treated with garden varieties, and the main root is trimmed.

Seed propagation of a tree

Seed propagation involves stratification. Seeds are taken only from zoned varieties. As a substrate for a 200-day stratification, moss, sawdust of coniferous trees or river sand can be used. Sowing stratified material is carried out in spring. The seeds are buried by 5-6 centimeters, while between them there should be a distance of about half a meter.

Cherry Diseases and Pests

All fruit trees, including cherry trees, are affected by diseases and pests. The presence of pests and fungi reduces the yield of plants and leads to their death. However, there are many tools that will help to save both plants and crops.

How to save plants from diseases

The most common disease in cherry is claustosporiosis (Klyasterosporioz). You can recognize it by spotted holes on the leaves. You can get rid of the disease if you immediately remove the affected parts of the plant. As a prophylaxis, spraying with copper oxychloride in combination with Bordeaux liquid is used.

Another scourge of cherries - coccomycosis. The fungus infects fruits and leaves and looks like reddish spots. The cure is carried out by spraying with Bordeaux liquid and copper chloride. Fallen leaves should be destroyed.

From moniliosis (fruit rot) helps to collect and eliminate infected fruits. The treatment with fungicides and Bordeaux liquid also gives a good effect.

Find out more information about types of cherry diseases and how to treat them here.

Major pests and their control

The main pests of cherry - sawflies (Symphyta), hawthorn (Aporia crataegi)plum moth (Grapholita funebrana). The greatest danger is sawflies, which are able to completely destroy the foliage. The fight against them is means "Actelik" (Aktellik) and Pyrithon (Pyrithione zinc).

The hawthorn caterpillar feeds on the leaves and buds of the tree. To get rid of it, biological agents and insecticides are used. Plum moth spoils the berries, laying eggs inside them. Carbophosphate is used to kill the butterfly.

Wood Prevention

Cherry will not hurt if you take care of its protection in the spring. It will be necessary to process not only wood, but also soil. Fighting pests is to cover the sections with garden varnish and treat the stem with copper sulfate.

How to prune a cherry (video)

Cherry is a valuable shrub revered by gardeners because of its beautiful appearance and delicious berries. It will turn out to grow it on your site, if you choose the seedling and the place of planting correctly, protect the plant from diseases and pests, correctly carry out a number of care measures.

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