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Sucker - an evergreen or deciduous shrub or tree of the Sucker family (Elaeagnaceae), growing in China, Japan, Europe, North America, Russia. Has more than 50 species. Widely used for landscaping parks, gardens.
The meaning of the name of the plant
The Greek word "elaiagnos" consists of two terms: "elaia" is translated as "olive", "agnos" - means "Abraham's tree." This name was received by the goof due to the similarity of fruits and leaves. In Central Asia, this plant is known as "jida", "jigida", "jigda".
Sucker - not only an ornamental plant
Sucker trees often grow bushy. They have beautiful silvery leaves, very fragrant flowers and edible fruits. May be scratchy. The silvery leaves of the sucker are short-leaved, alternate. Flowers can grow alone or gather in bunches, do not have petals, the cup is tubular-bell-shaped, four-lobed. The fruit is a drupe with a bone in the shape of an ellipse and tart-sweet pulp. The fruits can be eaten.
Loch is an unpretentious plant, loves light, is resistant to drought, is a good honey plant. Nodules are formed on the roots of the tree, in which there are nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the goof can grow on very poor soils and improve them.
How sucker multiplies
Sucker breeds in various ways: root offspring, seeds, cuttings. The best way is the seed method. Seeds are sown in September and October. If sowing is carried out in spring, then stratification is useful for seeds for 3-4 months at a temperature of 10-150C. Evergreen species are propagated by cuttings.
Common types of sucker
Umbrella sucker (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb) grows in East Asia. It reaches a height of 4 m. It blooms in June, in October the fruits ripen. The tree begins to bear fruit from the age of 9. When propagated by cuttings, 25% of seedlings take root. Seeds stratify in peat or sand for 4 months, temperature - 50C.
Japan is the birthplace of Prickly sucker (Elaeagnus pungens Thunb). This is a deciduous evergreen shrub reaching a height of 7 m. The branches are sprawling, have short thick spines. Shoots often grow with side branches pointing down. Thanks to them, the sucker clings to objects or other plants, can climb to a height of 10 m. Young shoots are covered with brown scales. Leaves are elliptical, 10 cm long. Above the leaves are dark green, shiny.
The underside of the sheet is silver-brown. Small flowers are collected 2-3 in bunches. The flowers inside are golden in color and silver white on the outside. They emit a very fragrant smell. The fruit in an immature state is greenish-brownish; upon ripening, it becomes reddish. The reddish fruits are spectacular against the background of silver foliage, this gives the sucker fabulousness and makes it a wonderful ornamental plant. This also contributes to unpretentiousness to the soil, quick adaptability to urban conditions, ease of formation, shade tolerance. It is used as a hedge and for decorating fences and walls.
In Japan and China, one can meet in vivo goof multiflorous (Elaeagnus multiftora Thunb). It has another name - gummy. This is a low shrub, not more than 1.5 m tall. Its young shoots in brown-red scales.
Oval leaves on top also have silver scales, the lower side is silver and brown. Bell-shaped flowers, yellowish white. It blooms in June. Large and juicy red fruits, the taste is pleasant, slightly sour, ripen in August. Fruits abundantly. It tolerates winter well and is quite drought tolerant.
Silver goof (Elaeagnus argentea Pursh) grows in North America. This is a deciduous shrub or low tree, growing up to 4 m, with a wide crown.
This sucker is not spiny, young shoots are brown-red due to the scales that cover them, the old bark is grayish-brown. The ovoid leaves are silvery, and on both sides are leathery, with brown scales on the underside. Small flowers are very fragrant, they are silver on the outside, yellow inside. Blooms up to 20 days in June and July. The fruits are spherical or oval, the flesh is sweet, mealy, dry. Fruits are covered with densely silver scales. Begins to bear fruit from 8 years old; fruit ripening occurs in September. It has a high winter hardiness, compared with the narrow-leaved sucker, but tolerates drought worse. It prefers bright places and is unpretentious to the soil; it grows well on sandy soils and loams. Better than narrow-leaved goof, tolerates urban conditions. Growing slowly. This species is propagated by seeds, root offspring and cuttings, easily tolerates transplants, pruning. Gives abundant growth, growing in thickets.
Seeds are sown in spring after stratification or in autumn. When removing endocarp, 80-100% of seeds germinate in 10 days. When planting cuttings, 30% are rooted after treatment with phyton.
It is a wonderful ornamental plant due to silver leaves and fruits.
It is planted in groups and singly; it combines wonderfully with red-leaved and golden trees, as well as with conifers. It is successfully applied when fixing slopes.
Narrow-leaved goof (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is common in the Caucasus, southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Asia Minor. It usually grows along the shores of lakes and rivers. It is a low deciduous tree and a spreading asymmetric crown or shrub. It grows to 10 m, the red-brown bark is covered with spikes 3 cm long. The trunk is usually curved. Shoots are covered with star-scaly silvery hairs.
The leaves are soft, lanceolate with a sharp peak, the length reaches 8 cm. The leaves are gray-green above, the lower side is covered with silver-white scales. The flowers are very fragrant, on the outside they are orange-yellow, inside silver. Narrow-leaved sucker blooms up to 20 days. At first, the drupe is silvery, then, after ripening, it becomes yellowish-brown. The pulp is sweetish, mealy.
This species is characterized by rapid growth, deep root system. It withstands urban conditions, such as gas and smoke, is drought-resistant. It tolerates frosts well enough. It is used to create hedges, as it gives copious growth. It tolerates pruning and cutting. It looks very nice against a background of dark greenery.
Seed germination lasts up to 4 years, they are stored on shelves in wooden boxes.
Seeds do not need to be stratified before planting, but if they are sown in the spring, some will be planted only next year. Freshly picked, peeled seeds are best germinated during autumn sowing. When spring sowing, it is advisable to pre-soak them in water for 4 days or stand 3 months in wet sand / peat at 16-20 degrees Celsius.
Where is the sucker applied
All types of sucker are usually used as an ornamental plant. It goes well with golden and red deciduous shrubs, with conifers. Hedges, contrasting groups are created from sucker.
The bones of one of the varieties of sucker - Bukhara jida - have a striped color. Of these, children make beads.
Sucker is an excellent honey plant and has unique medicinal abilities. For medicinal purposes, fruits, flowers, bark, leaves and resin are used.
Leaves are harvested in the first half of summer, flowers in May or early June. Recommends drying them in special appliances or under a canopy.
Loch is used as an astringent, antibacterial, antiviral agent. Decoctions and infusions are made from the leaves, which lower the temperature during colds and fevers. As an external agent used for rheumatism, gout, radiculitis.
The fruits of the sucker have the ability to improve memory, have an expectorant and diuretic effect. Berries are also a delicious restorative and tonic product, very useful for cardiovascular diseases. A decoction of berries is recommended for diarrhea and colitis, relieves inflammatory processes, destroys pathogenic microbes. Musical instruments and crafts are made of wood, gum is made of gum.
Despite the unpretentiousness, the sucker still needs care. Every year, the plant must be fed; in the spring, dry branches must be removed. At the age of 15, anti-aging pruning is performed.
Despite drought tolerance, watering is recommended in very hot summers. After watering, the soil must be mulched. Loosen a shallow near-trunk zone and remove weeds. For the winter, the goof is tied up with twine, covered with brushwood. Other covering material is not recommended in order to avoid the plants from aging.